Valve Configuration Determines Long-Term Results After Repair of the Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospitals Homburg, Homburg, Germany.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 01/2011; 123(2):178-85. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.934679
Source: PubMed


Reconstruction of the regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve has been performed for >10 years, but there is limited information on long-term results. We analyzed our results to determine the predictors of suboptimal outcome.
Between November 1995 and December 2008, 316 patients (age, 49±14 years; male, 268) underwent reconstruction of a regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve. Intraoperative assessment included extent of fusion, root dimensions, circumferential orientation of the 2 normal commissures (>160°, ≤160°), and effective height after repair. Cusp pathology was treated by central plication (n=277), triangular resection (n=138), or pericardial patch (n=94). Root dilatation was treated by subcommissural plication (n=100), root remodeling (n=122), or valve reimplantation (n=2). All patients were followed up echocardiographically (cumulative follow-up, 1253 years; mean, 4±3.1 years). Clinical and morphological parameters were analyzed for correlation with 10-year freedom from reoperation with the Cox proportional hazards model. Hospital mortality was 0.63%; survival was 92% at 10 years. Freedom from reoperation at 5 and 10 years was 88% and 81%; freedom from valve replacement, 95% and 84%. By univariable analysis, statistically significant predictors of reoperation were age (hazard ratio [HR]=0.97), aortoventricular diameter (HR=1.24), effective height (HR=0.76), commissural orientation (HR=0.95), use of a pericardial patch (HR=7.63), no root replacement (HR=3.80), subcommissural plication (HR=2.07), and preoperative aortic regurgitation grade 3 or greater. By multivariable analysis, statistically significant predictors for reoperation were age (HR=0.96), aortoventricular diameter (HR=1.30), effective height (HR=0.74), commissural orientation (HR=0.96), and use of a pericardial patch (HR=5.16).
Reconstruction of bicuspid aortic valve can be performed reproducibly with good early results. Recurrence and progression of regurgitation, however, may occur, depending primarily on anatomic features of the valve.

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    • "It has been suggested that commissure and/or cusp configuration , including the commissural angular configuration (CAC), impacts on mid-term valve function and on reoperation risk after valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) for BAV disease [4]. Here, we report a retrospective analysis testing this hypothesis by investigating the impact of pre-and postoperative commissural orientation angles and Sievers' BAV type on functional outcomes after the Tirone David V Stanford modification (TD V S-mod ) V-SARR procedure. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: A 180/180° configuration has been reported to increase repair durability after valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) for bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease. We studied the impact of commissural angular configuration (CAC) and of BAV type on valve performance after V-SARR. Methods: A total of 85 BAV patients (68 males, age 44 ± 11 years) underwent Tirone David-V V-SARR between 1997 and 2013. BAV type was documented intraoperatively, and CAC determined from pre- and postoperative computed tomography scans as the angle subtended by the non-fused cusp. Transthoracic echocardiogram was performed at 6 ± 3 days and at 2.9 ± 2.1 years. Functional end-points included freedom from aortic regurgitation (AR) 1+, AR 2+ and freedom from AR progression (0 to 1+, or 1+ to 2+). Tested variables included preoperative CAC (>160 vs <160°) and changes in CAC after V-SARR (Δ > 30° vs Δ < 30°) and Sievers' BAV type (SØ or S1). Results: CAC in SØ-BAV (n = 26) changed minimally from 164 ± 12 to 171 ± 11° (mean Δ = 7.2 ± 16°, P = 0.044), whereas in S1-BAV (n = 59) CAC changed substantially from 132 ± 19 to 156 ± 18° (mean Δ = 27 ± 21°, P < 0.001). Larger postoperative CAC angles were not linked to better mid-term valve performance, but Sievers' BAV type had a major effect on valve performance: mild AR in S1/i BAV progressed more often (76 vs 32% at 4 years, P = 0.017) and 1+ AR was more frequent (70 vs 36% at 4 years, P = 0.008) compared with SØ-BAV. Conclusions: BAV type, including number of raphes, sinuses and commissures (SØ superior to S1) but not commissure geometry within the neoroot alone, appears to be linked to functional outcomes after V-SARR for BAV.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 06/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu123 · 1.16 Impact Factor
    • "Although valve sparing or repair procedures are not feasible in BAV presenting with moderate to severe aortic stenosis, repair techniques for regurgitant BAVs are well described by several select centres [13] [14] [15] [16]. In addition, recent work has shed light on the outcomes in BAV patients undergoing valve repair + annular stabilization (sub-commissural annuloplasty) vs primary valve repair + root reimplantation [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]. The data suggest that root stabilization is critical in the context of a repaired BAV for long-term durability (freedom from aortic insufficiency, AI). "
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    ABSTRACT: Primary cusp repair + aortic root reimplantation in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease presenting with root aneurysm with aortic insufficiency (AI) is an effective surgical treatment. We assessed whether the geometric orientation of the repaired BAV into its reimplanted neoroot affects outcomes-180°/180° orientation was compared with the 150°/210° orientation. From 2005 to 2012, 66 BAV repairs were performed. This is a retrospective review of all types of Ib/II BAV AI patients undergoing root reimplantation (n = 26) at two different geometric orientations: 180°/180° (n = 11) vs 150°/210° (n = 15). In the 180°/180° group, reimplantation into the neoroot was such that both conjoint and non-conjoint cusps occupied 180° of the annular circumference. In the 150°/210° group, the repaired valve was configured to the more typical native orientation of a type I BAV: the non-conjoint cusp occupied 150°, and the conjoint cusp occupied 210° of the annular circumference. Preoperative characteristics were similar in both groups. In-hospital mortality, stroke, reoperation, renal failure and pacemaker rates were zero in both groups. No patient left the operating room with >1+ AI and one had a peak gradient >20 mmHg. Transvalvular gradients were higher in the 180°/180° group, but not significant (P > 0.05). M.ean follow-ups for the 180°/180° and 150°/210° group were 48 and 33 months, respectively. Actuarial freedom from AI >2+ at 5 years was 100% in both groups. Freedom from AI >1+ at 5 years was 90 ± 10% in the 150°/210° group and 86 ± 13% in the 180°/180° group (P = 0.71). Freedom from peak gradient >20 mmHg was 80% (n = 8) in the 180°/180° group and 100% in the 150°/210° group at 1-year follow-up. Transvalvular gradients were higher in the 180°/180° group (16 ± 8 vs 10 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.02; 9 ± 3 vs 5 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.01). Five-year actuarial survival and freedom from aortic reoperation have remained at 100% in the entire cohort. Cusp repair + root reimplantation for BAV type Ib/II AI can be safely performed at either geometric orientation. Conceptually, 150°/210° orientation respects the natural type I BAV anatomy with regard to cusp surface area and leaflet insertion perimeter. The 180°/180° group may have higher transvalvular gradients and smaller coaptation zones than the 150°/210° group. Further follow-up may reveal the superiority of one geometric orientation over the other.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 07/2013; 45(1). DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezt354 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    • "Valve sparing root repair is—even in bicuspid patients—the preferred approach by specialized centers of excellence in this particular field of reconstructive aortic root surgery [56]. Major limitations obviously apply if anatomy of the bicuspid valve is unsuitable, Aicher et al.: “Recurrence and progression of regurgitation, however, may occur, depending primarily on anatomic features of the valve” [56]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Preventive surgical repair of the moderately dilated ascending aorta/aortic root in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is controversial. Most international reference centers are currently proposing a proactive approach for BAV patients with a maximum ascending aortic/root diameter of 45 mm since the risk of dissection/rupture raises significantly with an aneurysm diameter >50 mm. Current guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the joint guidelines of the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) recommend elective repair in symptomatic patients with dysfunctional BAV (aortic diameter ≥45 mm). In asymptomatic patients with a well-functioning BAV, elective repair is recommended for diameters ≥50 mm, or if the aneurysm is rapidly progressing (rate of 5 mm/year), or in case of a strong family history of dissection/rupture/sudden death, or with planned pregnancy. As diameter is likely not the most reliable predictor of rupture and dissection and the majority of BAV patients may never experience an aortic catastrophe at small diameters, an overly aggressive approach almost certainly will put some patients with BAV unnecessarily at risk of operative and early mortality. This paper discusses the indications for preventive, elective repair of the aortic root, and ascending aorta in patients with a BAV and a moderately dilated-or ectatic-ascending aorta.
    Cardiology Research and Practice 09/2012; 2012(1):313879. DOI:10.1155/2012/313879
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