Involvement of CD8+ T cell–mediated immune responses in LcrV DNA vaccine induced protection against lethal Y. pestis challenge

Laboratory of Nucleic Acid Vaccines, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 09/2011; 29(39):6802-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.062
Source: PubMed


Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) is the causative pathogen of plague, a highly fatal disease for which an effective vaccine, especially against mucosal transmission, is still not available. Like many bacterial infections, antigen-specific antibody responses have been traditionally considered critical, if not solely responsible, for vaccine-induced protection against Y. pestis. Studies in recent years have suggested the importance of T cell immune responses against Y. pestis infection but information is still limited about the details of Y. pestis antigen-specific T cell immune responses. In current report, studies are conducted to identify the presence of CD8+ T cell epitopes in LcrV protein, the leading antigen of plague vaccine development. Furthermore, depletion of CD8+ T cells in LcrV DNA vaccinated Balb/C mice led to reduced protection against lethal intranasal challenge of Y. pestis. These findings establish that an LcrV DNA vaccine is able to elicit CD8+ T cell immune responses against specific epitopes of this key plague antigen and that a CD8+ T cell immune response is involved in LcrV DNA vaccine-elicited protection. Future studies in plague vaccine development will need to examine if the presence of detectable T cell immune responses, in particular CD8+ T-cell immune responses, will enhance the protection against Y. pestis in higher animal species or humans.

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Available from: Shan Lu, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Recently, the involvement of the CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response in protection against Y. pestis infection was demonstrated in mice immunized with the LcrV-based DNA vaccine. The unraveling of protective T-cell epitopes within the LcrV antigen is crucial for the creation of a vaccine that can elicit optimized humoral and cell-mediated immunities.67 "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite many decades of intensive studies of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, there is no safe and efficient vaccine against this devastating disease. A recently developed F1/V subunit vaccine candidate, which relies mainly on humoral immunity, showed promising results in animal studies; however, its efficacy in humans still has to be carefully evaluated. In addition, those developing next-generation plague vaccines need to pay particular attention to the importance of eliciting cell-mediated immunity. In this review, we analyzed the current progress in developing subunit, DNA and live carrier platforms of delivery by bacterial and viral vectors, as well as approaches for controlled attenuation of virulent strains of Y. pestis.
    Emerging Microbes and Infections 11/2012; 1(11). DOI:10.1038/emi.2012.34 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "This is in contrast to B cells, which were found to be dispensable for protection, as shown by the effectiveness of anti-F1 therapy in ␮MT mice (Fig. 7). Several studies have recently demonstrated the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to protection against plague following long-term immunization with either a live or an F1/LcrV-based vaccine [24] [39] [40]. In the current study, we extend these observations and report on the requirement for T cells for effective treatment with anti-F1 antibodies against Y. pestis infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plague, which is initiated by Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease that progresses rapidly and leads to high mortality rates if not treated. Antibiotics are an effective plague therapy, but antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains have been reported and therefore alternative countermeasures are needed. In the present study, we assessed the potential of an F1 plus LcrV-based vaccine to provide protection shortly pre- or post-exposure to a lethal Y. pestis infection. Mice vaccinated up to one day before or even several hours after subcutaneous challenge were effectively protected. Mice immunized one or three days pre-challenge were protected even though their anti-F1 and anti-LcrV titers were below detection levels at the day of challenge. Moreover, using B-cell deficient μMT mice, we found that rapidly induced protective immunity requires the integrity of the humoral immune system. Analysis of the individual contributions of vaccine components to protection revealed that rF1 is responsible for the observed rapid antibody-mediated immunity. Applying anti-F1 passive therapy in the mouse model of bubonic plague demonstrated that anti-F1 F(ab')(2) can delay mortality, but it cannot provide long-lasting protection, as do intact anti-F1 molecules. Fc-dependent immune components, such as the complement system and (to a lesser extent) neutrophils, were found to contribute to mouse survival. Interestingly, T cells but not B cells were found to be essential for the recovery of infected animals following passive anti-F1 mediated therapy. These data extend our understanding of the immune mechanisms required for the development of a rapid and effective post-exposure therapy against plague.
    Vaccine 07/2011; 29(40):6866-73. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.059 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Septic bacterial pneumonias are a major cause of death worldwide. Several of the highest priority bioterror concerns, including anthrax, tularemia, and plague, are caused by bacteria that acutely infect the lung. Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is increasingly common. Although vaccines may be our best defense against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there has been little progress in the development of safe and effective vaccines for pulmonary bacterial pathogens. The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, an acutely lethal septic pneumonia. Historic pandemics of plague caused millions of deaths, and the plague bacilli's potential for weaponization sustains an ongoing quest for effective countermeasures. Subunit vaccines have failed, to date, to fully protect nonhuman primates. In mice, they induce the production of Abs that act in concert with type 1 cytokines to deliver high-level protection; however, the Y. pestis Ags recognized by cytokine-producing T cells have yet to be defined. In this study, we report that Y. pestis YopE is a dominant Ag recognized by CD8 T cells in C57BL/6 mice. After vaccinating with live attenuated Y. pestis and challenging intranasally with virulent plague, nearly 20% of pulmonary CD8 T cells recognize this single, highly conserved Ag. Moreover, immunizing mice with a single peptide, YopE(69-77), suffices to confer significant protection from lethal pulmonary challenge. These findings suggest YopE could be a valuable addition to subunit plague vaccines and provide a new animal model in which sensitive, pathogen-specific assays can be used to study CD8 T cell-mediated defense against acutely lethal bacterial infections of the lung.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 187(2):897-904. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1100174 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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