Future dentistry: cell therapy meets tooth and periodontal repair and regeneration.

Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental Institute, King's College London, London, UK.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.7). 12/2010; 15(5):1054-65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01251.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cell-based tissue repair of the tooth and - tooth-supporting - periodontal ligament (PDL) is a new attractive approach that complements traditional restorative or surgical techniques for replacement of injured or pathologically damaged tissues. In such therapeutic approaches, stem cells and/or progenitor cells are manipulated in vitro and administered to patients as living and dynamic biological agents. In this review, we discuss the clonogenic potential of human dental and periodontal tissues such as the dental pulp and the PDL and their potential for tooth and periodontal repair and/or regeneration. We propose novel therapeutic approaches using stem cells or progenitor cells, which are targeted to regenerate the lost dental or periodontal tissue.

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    ABSTRACT: Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) that have the same embryonic origin as craniofacial bones. Optimising combinations of scaffolds, cells, growth factors and culture conditions still remains a great challenge. In the present study, we evaluate the mineralisation potential of hDPSCs seeded on porous silk fibroin scaffolds in a mechanically dynamic environment provided by spinner flask bioreactors. Cell-seeded scaffolds were cultured in either standard or osteogenic media in both static and dynamic conditions for 47 days. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography of the samples showed low levels of mineralisation when samples were cultured in static conditions (0.16 ±0.1 BV/TV%), while their culture in a dynamic environment with osteogenic medium and weekly µCT scans (4.9 ±1.6 BV/TV%) significantly increased the formation of homogeneously mineralised structures, which was also confirmed by the elevated calcium levels (4.5 ±1.0 vs. 8.8 ±1.7 mg/mL). Molecular analysis of the samples showed that the expression of tooth specific genes such as Dentin Sialophosphoprotein and Nestin were downregulated by a factor of 6.7 and 7.4, respectively, in hDPSCs when cultured in presence of osteogenic medium, thus indicating that hDPSCs are able to adopt a non-dental identity by changing the culture conditions only. In conclusion, the combination of hDPSCs and silk scaffolds cultured in the presence of mechanical loading in spinner flask bioreactors could offer a novel and promising approach for bone tissue engineering where appropriate and rapid bone regeneration in mechanically loaded tissues is required.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Regenerative Medicine 01/2015; 10(1). · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keywords: Biological tooth, dental pulp stem cell, regenerative dentistry. The current rapid progression in stem cell and tissue engineering research has enhanced our knowledge about tissue regeneration and revealed the demand for the treatment of dental caries and tooth loss with biological sources. The terminal differentiation of the pulp-derived stem cells into odontoblast cells in case of need, enables the formation of dentin tissue during life and justifies the possibility of the regeneration in dentistry. The promising results of stem cell research on odontogenic differentiation give hope to generate a new concept in the field of dental treatment. The aim of this review is to outline the current approaches for tooth regeneration and define the basic terms in regenerative dentistry.
    Indian Journal of Medical Research and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 01/2014; 1:2349-5340.

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