"This approach facilitates diagnostic agreement among clinicians but may hamper the search for underlying biobehavioral signatures of these conditions (e.g., Gross & Jazaieri, 2014). In response to the emphasis of the DSM and its predecessors in favoring surface characteristics, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has proposed an alternate system of nosology called the " Research Domain Criteria initiative " (Cuthbert & Insel, 2010), which seeks to identify mechanisms that explain processes from normative to dysfunctional variants in hopes that new forms of intervention can be developed to normalize the underlying biobehavioral markers and ideally improve treatment efficacy for otherwise treatment refractory disorders. One set of particularly refractory conditions is the " distress disorders, " which include generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder. "
"We endorse this new methodology because we recognize its inherent value. Nevertheless, even a brief summary of this approach is well beyond the scope of this article (for comprehensive reviews, see Casey, Oliveri, & Insel, 2014; Cuthbert & Insel, 2010; Insel et al., 2010; Sanislow et al., 2010; Voeller, 2004; Whelan et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article provides a review of the construct of attention from a non-traditional standpoint. Attention is conceptualized by focusing on the categorical concept of the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, large-scale brain network models of functional neuroanatomy, and implications for understanding lateralized hemispheric brain organization. Cortical systems are multifunctional, with certain degrees of specialization, but no cortical region or network supports only one, specific, isolated cognitive process, such as attention. Future implications for clinical practice must focus on connectivity patterns rather than the idea of "domains" or "constructs" when considering attention and other cognitive processes. This has significant implications for the future of neuropsychological assessment and intervention.
"a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes or brain circuitry that underlies a number of major mental disorders. Indeed, at the genetic level, risk variants shared between multiple psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, have been identified (Owen et al., 2007, 2011; Cuthbert & Insel, 2010). Important processes from where endophenotypes spanning a range of psychiatric disease might arise include the initial development of the nervous system and its subsequent refinement in the early years of life, and the functionality of synaptic connections within the circuits of the CNS. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is found at the breakpoint of an inherited chromosomal translocation, and segregates with major mental illnesses. Its potential role in central nervous system (CNS) malfunction has triggered intensive investigation of the biological roles played by DISC1, with the hope that this may shed new light on the pathobiology of psychiatric disease. Such work has ranged from investigations of animal behavior to detailed molecular-level analysis of the assemblies that DISC1 forms with other proteins. Here, we discuss the evidence for a role of DISC1 in synaptic function in the mammalian CNS.
European Journal of Neuroscience 04/2014; 39(7). DOI:10.1111/ejn.12500 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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