Influence of seminal plasma, spermatozoa and semen extender on cytokine expression in the porcine endometrium after insemination.
ABSTRACT The effects of semen components or extender alone on the expression of selected cytokines [interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1] on the porcine endometrium were studied, as well as the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs). In experiment (Exp) I, groups of gilts were sampled at 5-6h after insemination with fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), seminal plasma (SP), or only BTS (control). In Exp II, gilts were sampled 35-40h after insemination with Spz, SP, BTS or only catheter inserted (as control). Immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling of IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β1 was evident, especially in surface and glandular epithelia of the porcine endometrium. There were no consistent differences in IHC-labelling of the cytokines in relation to different treatments. However, the scores for IL-6 and IL-10 in surface epithelium and sub-epithelial connective tissue compartments were higher at 35-40h than shortly (5-6h) after treatment. Cytoplasmic labelling in the sub-epithelial connective tissue was observed in scattered individual cells but not in PMNs. Shortly (5-6h) after insemination, there were no differences between animals inseminated with BTS (control) and the semen components for any of the cytokine mRNAs. Later however, at 35-40h, lower endometrial expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was observed in the Spz and BTS groups compared with the control (catheter only). The same pattern was found for IL-10 (NS). The mRNA expression of IL-6 in the BTS inseminated group was higher compared to the control group. Insemination with SP resulted in significantly lower PMN cell infiltration in the sub-epithelial connective tissue compared with Spz or BTS groups shortly (5-6h) after insemination. Later (35-40h), a significant difference was found between SP (lower) and the control group (only catheter). To conclude, our results show that insemination and/or inseminated components modulated cytokine expression in the gilt endometrium. The semen extender BTS stimulated immune reactivity, as shown by down-regulation of the suppressive cytokine TGF-β1. Insemination with solely SP clearly decreased PMN cell infiltration of the gilt endometrium. However, no clear relation between the cytokines studied and PMN cell presence was found.
- SourceAvailable from: Andrzej Madej[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to explore whether heparin-binding proteins, separated by fast protein liquid chromatography from boar seminal plasma influence the release of pros- taglandins F2 α, (PGF2α), E2 (PGE2) and interleu- kin-6 (IL-6) by porcine endometrial and cervical cells and even bovine endometrial cells. In Ex- periment I, we showed that release of PGF2α by endometrial epithelial, endometrial stromal and cervical stromal cells to the medium was inhi- bited (p < 0.05) to 9.0% - 60.6% after 24 h incu- bation with 125 μg of heparin-binding proteins. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulated re- lease of IL-6 by endometrial and cervical stromal cells after 24 h incubation, but in the presence of heparin-binding proteins, this stimulation was attenuated. Release of PGF2α by cryopreserved (Experiment II) and primary (Experiment III) cer- vical stromal cells was significantly inhibited after 3 h incubation with 66 - 95.4 μg of heparin- binding proteins. A significant inhibition of PGE2 release by cryopreserved and primary cervical stromal cells was already achieved after incuba-tion with 16.5 - 23.9 μg of heparin-binding pro-teins. The release of IL-6 by cryopreserved cells was stimulated after 3 h incubation with heparin- binding proteins in a dose dependent manner in contrast to the release of IL-6 by freshly isolated cervical stromal cells. We also found (Experi-ment IV) that porcine heparin-binding seminal plasma proteins inhibited release of PGF2α and stimulated release of IL-6 by bovine endometrial epithelial cells. In conclusion, a group of hepa- rin-binding proteins separated by fast protein liquid chromatography from boar seminal plas- ma inhibit PGF2α, PGE2 and stimulate IL-6 re-lease by porcine endometrial and cervical cells, and even by bovine endometrial cells. Thus, these proteins have a similar effect as the entire seminal plasma.Natural Science. 01/2013; 5 (7A)(7A):21-30.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Artificial insemination (AI) involving the placing of frozen-thawed semen directly into the jenny uterine body is associated with very low pregnancy rates. This might be because of an exacerbation of the acute response of the endometrium to sperm, as seen in mares with persistent induced mating endometritis. Pregnancy rates can be increased in such mares, however, by including anti-inflammatory treatments in the insemination protocol (Bucca S, Carli A, Buckley T, Dolci G, Fogarty U. The use of dexamethasone administered to mares at breeding time in the modulation of persistent mating induced endometritis. Theriogenology 2008;70:1093-100; Rojer H, Aurich C. Treatment of persistent mating-induced endometritis in mares with the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug vedaprofen. Reprod Domest Anim 2010;45:e458-60). To investigate the endometritis caused by the use of frozen-thawed semen in jennies, and to assess the response to ketoprofen treatment, endometrial cytological samples and biopsies from six healthy jennies were examined in a crossover design experiment. Samples were taken from jennies in estrus (E; control) and at 6 hours after AI with or without ketoprofen (+K and -K, respectively). Ketoprofen was administered iv 24 hours before and for 4 days after insemination (total = 2.2 mg/kg/24 hours for 5 days). All animals showed a severe inflammatory response to semen deposition. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil numbers in the cytological smears and biopsies differed significantly between the +K and E animals. No significant differences were recorded, however, between the +K and -K treatments. Eosinophils were observed in all sample types from all groups; these cells appear to be a feature of the normal jenny endometrium. Slight fibrosis was observed in some biopsies, but no significant relationship with inflammation was found. Intense cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immunohistochemical labeling was detected in the -K biopsies. Less intense labeling was seen in those of the +K animals, and mainly localized in the stratum compactum. No differences in COX-2 labeling were observed between the +K and E animals. Plasma concentrations of ketoprofen remained detectable until 2 hours after administration, after which the compound was rapidly eliminated. In summary, jennies are susceptible to endometritis after insemination with frozen-thawed semen. Ketoprofen reduces this inflammation by inhibiting COX-2; no reduction in the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils occurs. The physiological and pharmacological characteristics of jennies should be taken into account when designing treatments for acute endometritis aimed at enhancing pregnancy rates after insemination with frozen-thawed sperm.Theriogenology 02/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of seminal plasma on the presence of the cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 in ovarian follicles and follicular fluid were studied shortly after insemination in gilts.Ovaries from gilts were sampled 5--6 h after insemination with either seminal plasma (SP), fresh semen in extender (Beltsville thawing solution, BTS), spermatozoa in extender (Spz), or only BTS (control). Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling of TGF-beta1, IL-10 and IL-6 was evident in the ovarian oocytes and granulosa cells independent of stage of follicular development (antral follicles). Theca interna cells were labeled to a high degree in mature follicles. No consistent differences between treatment groups could be observed for any of the cytokines.In follicular fluid, high concentrations of TGF-beta1 were found while the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were low. There were no differences between treatment groups. Our results show a presence of the cytokines TGF-beta1, IL-6 and IL-10 in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells, as well as in the fluid of mature follicles suggesting a role of these cytokines in intra-ovarian cell communication. However, treatment (SP, fresh semen in BTS, spermatozoa in BTS or BTS) did not influence the IHC-labeling pattern or the levels of these cytokines in follicular fluid shortly after insemination.Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 09/2013; 55(1):66. · 1.00 Impact Factor