Data about the prevalence of diabetic neuropathy (DN) differ substantially, depending on the population and diagnostic methods. Sex-specific differences in DN are rarely discussed.
The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of, and analyze sex differences in, DN in a hospital population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) over a period of 18 years.
In this retrospective study performed at a university hospital endocrinology clinic in Sofia, patient clinical records from 1990-2007 were examined. Patients were included in the database only at their first admission.
Data from 1705 patients with T2DM were analyzed (961 women, 744 men; mean [SD] age, 60.0 [11.9] years; diabetes duration, 9.9 [8.4] years; glycosylated hemoglobin, 9.0% [2.2%]; and body mass index, 29.4 [6.0] kg/m²). Obesity (46.3% vs 32.0%; P < 0.001), hypertension (86.7% vs 77.8%; P < 0.001), and dyslipidemia (61.2% vs 55.0%; P < 0.05) were significantly more common in women than in men, respectively. The prevalence of DN was 78.8%, with no significant sex differences. However, prevalence differed with time, corresponding to the frequency of application of electrophysiologic (electromyograms) or semiquantitative instrumental diagnostic methods. In men, the median (25th-75th percentiles) interval between diagnosis of T2DM and diagnosis of DN was 6 (1-12) years; in women, the interval was 8 (4-13) years (P < 0.01).
In this study of Bulgarian patients with T2DM, women were at higher macrovascular risk than were men. A high prevalence of DN was observed among these patients. The period from the diagnosis of T2DM to DN was shorter in men than in women-this necessitates earlier screening and therapeutic intervention for DN in men. Reasons for this sex difference may include differences in lifestyle and the testosterone deficiency that is common in men with diabetes, leading to a more pronounced deficit of neurosteroids.
"Long-term elevated glucose level in the blood likely leads to a variety of diabetic complications such as neuropathy , nephropathy , and retinopathy . These are partly caused by an increase of oxidative stress. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR) were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014(6):628473. DOI:10.1155/2014/628473 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for treating complex chronic diseases owing to their fewer side-effects, better patient tolerance and relatively less cost. The present work was carried out to study the anti-diabetic efficacy and mechanisms of 34 TCMs.
Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice were orally administrated with corresponding herbal solution once a day for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the level of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the serum aldose reductase (AR) were determined, the effects of TCM extract on α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro were also evaluated.
13 out of the 34 herbs showed a statistically significant plasma glucose lowering action compared with the diabetic control group. Biochemical analysis revealed that Atractylodes macrocephala, Codonopsis pilosula, Dioscorea opposite, Flos lonicerae and Pueraria lobata may retard the progression of diabetes via reduce the blood glucose level and prevent the increase of AR activity. Other tested herbs, such as Ramulus cinnamomi, Cinnamomum cassia, and Eucommia ulmoides, showed the antidiabetic ability by either prevent the decrease in SOD activity or suppress the increase of MDA. Zymologic assay reveals that Pueraria lobata and Anemarrhena asphodeloides showed the highest inhibition against α-glucosidase and ACE respectively. Interestingly, the post-treatment glucose levels and AR activity were positively correlated with kidney/body weight of 34 herbs treated diabetic mice (p = 0.02, 0.04 respectively).
Several potential antidiabetic herbs derived from Chinese traditional pharmacopeia such as Dioscorea opposite, Pueraria lobata, Codonopsis pilosula and Ramulus cinnamomi, have been found to exert a beneficial action on diabetes and diabetic complications via multi-mechanisms.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2011; 137(3):1135-42. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.033 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in type 1 diabetes but little is known about the impact of diabetic PNP on bone metabolism in type 2 diabetes.
The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in bone metabolism by measuring markers of bone turnover and BMD in men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and diabetic PNP compared with those without PNP. Gender differences were analyzed for both groups of patients.
One hundred twenty patients with type 2 diabetes, 68 without PNP (43 men, 25 women, mean age 62  years) and 52 with PNP (28 men, 24 women, mean age 64  years) were studied. Clinical parameters with bone turnover biomarkers such as osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen were measured in all patients. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate BMD was performed in a subgroup of patients.
After controlling for age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, smoking, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance, serum C-reactive protein, creatinine, calcium, gamma-glutamyltransferase, parathyroid and sex hormones levels, presence of micro/macrovascular complications, statin- as well as diabetes-related therapies, levels of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide were significantly higher among patients with PNP when compared with patients without PNP (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). Differences in bone biomarkers were more pronounced among men with diabetes. BMD did not differ significantly between patients with and without PNP, independent of gender.
Male patients with PNP exhibit a higher rate of bone turnover than men without PNP. High rate of bone turnover increases the susceptibility for developing osteoporosis. Prevention of diabetic PNP might also reduce the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Gender Medicine 04/2012; 9(3):187-96. DOI:10.1016/j.genm.2012.03.004 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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