Article

Natural and expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in bone marrow transplantation.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.15). 01/2011; 17(1 Suppl):S58-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.10.020
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    ABSTRACT: Lag-3 has emerged as an important molecule in T cell biology. We investigated the role of Lag-3 in conventional T cell (Tcon) and regulatory T cell (Treg) function in murine GVHD with the hypothesis that Lag-3 engagement diminishes alloreactive T cell responses after bone marrow transplantation. We demonstrate that Lag-3 deficient Tcon (Lag-3(-/-) Tcon) induce significantly more severe GVHD than wild type (WT) Tcon and that the absence of Lag-3 on CD4 but not CD8 T cells is responsible for exacerbating GVHD. Lag-3(-/-) Tcon exhibited increased activation and proliferation as indicated by CFSE and bioluminescence imaging analyses and higher levels of activation markers such as CD69, CD107a, granzyme B, and Ki-67 as well as production of IL-10 and IFN-g early after transplantation. Lag-3(-/-) Tcon were less responsive to suppression by WT Treg as compared to WT Tcon. The absence of Lag-3, however, did not impair Treg function as both Lag-3(-/-) and WT Treg equally suppress the proliferation of Tcon in vitro and in vivo and protect against GVHD. Further, we demonstrate that allogeneic Treg acquire recipient MHC class II molecules through a process termed trogocytosis. As MHC class II is a ligand for Lag-3, we propose a novel suppression mechanism employed by Treg involving the acquisition of host MHC-II followed by the engagement of Lag-3 on T cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time the biologic function of Lag-3 expression on conventional and regulatory T cells in GVHD and identify Lag-3 as an important regulatory molecule involved in alloreactive T cell proliferation and activation after bone marrow transplantation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86551. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086551 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We investigated the ability of clinical-grade enriched human regulatory T cells (Treg) to attenuate experimental xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs; autologous to Treg) infusion in NSG mice, as well as verified their inability to induce xenogeneic GVHD when infused alone. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human Treg were isolated from peripheral blood apheresis products with a cell separation system (CliniMACS, Miltenyi Biotec GmbH) using a two-step procedure (simultaneous CD8 and CD19 depletion followed by CD25-positive selection) in six independent experiments with six different healthy volunteer donors. Sublethally (2.5 Gy) irradiated NSG mice were given 2 × 10(6) cytapheresis (PBMNC) product cells intravenously (IV) without (PBMNC group) or with 1 × 10(6) Treg (PBMNC + Treg group), while other NSG mice received 2 × 10(6) enriched Treg alone (also in IV; Treg group). RESULTS: The first five procedures were successful at obtaining a relatively pure Treg population (defined as >50%), while the sixth procedure, due to a technical problem, was not (Treg purity, 42%). Treg cotransfusion significantly delayed death from xenogeneic GVHD in the first five experiments, (p < 0.0001) but not in the sixth experiment. Importantly, none of the mice given enriched Treg alone (Treg group) experienced clinical signs of GVHD, while, interestingly, the CD4+ cells found in these mice 26 days after transplantation were mainly conventional T cells (median CD25+FoxP3+ cells among human CD4+ total cells were only 2.1, 3.1, and 12.2% in spleen, marrow, and blood, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Infusion of clinical-grade enriched Treg delayed the occurrence of xenogeneic GVHD without inducing toxicity in this murine model.
    Transfusion 06/2013; 54(2). DOI:10.1111/trf.12279 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major limitation of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Despite major advances in the understanding of GVHD pathogenesis, standard GVHD prophylaxis regimens continue to be based on the combination of a calcineurin inhibitor with an antimetabolite, while first line treatments still rely on high-dose corticosteroids. Further, no second line treatment has emerged thus far in acute or chronic GVHD patients who failed to respond with corticosteroid treatment. After briefly reviewing current standards of GVHD prevention and treatment, this article will discuss recent approaches that might change GVHD prophylaxis/treatment for decades to come, with a special focus on recently developed immunoregulatory strategies based on infusion of mesenchymal stromal or regulatory T-cells, or injection of low-dose interleukin-2.
    Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11899-013-0187-9

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