Effectiveness of orthodontic treatment with functional appliances on mandibular growth in the short term


The aim of this study was to analyze the current literature for the best evidence (randomized clinical trials) about the efficacy of functional appliances on mandibular growth in the short term.
A survey of articles published up to September 2009 was performed by using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, and Google Scholar. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand-searched for possible missing articles. No language restriction was applied during the identification of the published studies. A methodologic scoring process was developed to identify which randomized clinical trials were stronger methodologically. The selection process and the quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by 2 authors. A meta-analysis was attempted by using random-effects models. Clinical and statistical heterogeneity was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.
Electronic searches identified the following items: 146 articles were retrieved from PubMed, 45 from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, 29 from Ovid, 42 from LILACS, 628 from Web of Science, and 1000 from Google Scholar. Thirty-two articles fulfilled the specific inclusion criteria and were identified as potentially appropriate randomized clinical trials to be included in this meta-analysis. Only 4 articles, based on data from 338 patients (168 treated vs 170 controls) with Class II malocclusion in the mixed dentition, were selected for the final analysis. The quality analysis of these studies showed that the statistical methods were at the medium-high level. The outcome measurements chosen to evaluate the efficacy of the various functional appliances were Co-Pg, Pg/Olp + Co/Olp, and Co-Gn and the values were annualized and standardized to a uniform scale with the standardized mean differences (SMD). The results of the meta-analysis from the random-effects model showed a statistically significant difference of 1.79 mm in annual mandibular growth of the treatment group compared with the control group (SMD = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.30 to -0.93; chi-square test, 5.34; 3 df; P = 0.15; I(2) = 43.9%; test for overall effect, Z = 3.83 and P = 0.0001). The sensitivity analysis showed a substantially similar outcome of 1.91 mm (SMD = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.25; chi-square test, 4.96; 2 df; P = 0.08; I(2) = 59.7%; test for overall effect, Z = 3.19 and P = 0.001).
The analysis of the effect of treatment with functional appliances vs an untreated control group showed that skeletal changes were statistically significant, but unlikely to be clinically significant.

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    • "ase angulation is more prevalent in Class II malocclusion [ Kerr and Hirst , 1987 ; Baccetti et al . , 1997 ] . The clinical relevance of this finding is emphasised when we consider that therapeutic modalities such as functional jaw orthopaedic procedures have the greatest effectiveness if the type of mandibular retrusion is identified correctly [ Marsico et al . , 2011 ; Tecco et al . , 2005 ] ."
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyse the craniofacial and dentofacial skeletal characteristics in untreated subjects with Class II, division 1 malocclusion by mandibular retrusion and to identify different types and their prevalence. In 152 subjects with Class II, division 1 malocclusion by mandibular retrusion, the differences were determined by lateral cephalograms analysis of variance and chi-square test, respectively. P<0.05 was considered significant. Seven types of mandibular retrusion were identified: three pure, dimensional, rotational and positional, and four mixed. All patients showed significant inter-group differences with P between 0.005 and 0.001. The dimensional type was the most common (28.9%) and the rotational-positional type was the rarest (5.9%). The pure dimensional type had the shortest mandibular body; the pure rotational type had larger SN/GoMe and the lowest AOBO; the pure positional type presented the flattest cranial base, high AOBO. In the mixed types, dento-skeletal features changed depending on how the main types assorted. Identifying the type of mandibular retrusion is important for differential diagnosis in clinical practice and research.
    European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 09/2012; 13(3):192-6. · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The goal of this retrospective study was to examine the effectiveness of isolated bionator therapy in Class II patients both longitudinally and over the long term. We aimed to determine whether skeletal and/or dentoalveolar reactions differ in relationship to the Angle Class (II, Division 1 vs. II, Division 2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 50 juvenile patients with Class II malocclusion (♀ n = 26, ♂ n = 24) were included. A total of 24 patients presented an Angle Class II, Division 1 and 26 an Angle Class II, Division 2. We compared the patients' lateral cephalograms taken at the beginning of treatment (t1: 10.1 years), after active therapy (t2: 13.8 years), and at the end of retention (t3: 16.4 years) analyzing the following cephalometric parameters: SNA, SNB, ANB, ANB(ind), SNPog, Wits appraisal, U1-SN, U1-SpP, L1-MeGo, interincisal angle. Mean and standard deviations of each of the variables were calculated. Differences between t1-t2 and t2-t3 were tested for statistical significance. Changes in the variables were then analyzed biometrically for specific differences in terms of Angle Class (II, Division 1 vs. II, Division 2). RESULTS: Between t1 and t2, SNB (p = 0.000) and SNPog (p = 0.000) increased significantly, as did ANB (p = 0.000), while the difference between ANB and ANB(ind) (p = 0.000) and Wits appraisal (p = 0.000) decreased significantly. The dentoalveolar variables U1-SN, U1-SpP, and the interincisal angle changed significantly in both groups. The inclination of the upper incisors was corrected by retrusion in the Class II, Division 1 and by protrusion in the Class II, Division 2 group. Only marginal changes in all variables between t2 and t3 were observed. CONCLUSION: A significant skeletal effect (even in long-time stability) through bionator treatment could be confirmed in this study of Class II, Divisions 1 and 2 patients. The desired effect on the upper front teeth was realized, and there was no appreciable dentoalveolar compensation in the mandible.
    Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie 03/2012; 73(2):91-103. DOI:10.1007/s00056-011-0066-8 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the long-term skeletal and dentoalveolar effects and to evaluate treatment timing of Class II treatment with functional appliances followed by fixed appliances. Materials and methods: A group of 40 patients (22 females and 18 males) with Class II malocclusion consecutively treated either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a control group of 20 subjects (9 females and 11 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment (mean age 10 years), end of treatment with functional appliances (mean age 12 years), and long-term observation (mean age 18.6 years). The treated sample also was divided into two groups according to skeletal maturity. The early-treatment group was composed of 20 subjects (12 females and 8 males) treated before puberty, while the late-treatment group included 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) treated at puberty. Statistical comparisons were performed with analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc tests. Results: Significant long-term mandibular changes (Co-Gn) in the treated group (3.6 mm over the controls) were associated with improvements in the skeletal sagittal intermaxillary relationship, overjet, and molar relationship (∼3.0-3.5 mm). Treatment during the pubertal peak was able to produce significantly greater increases in total mandibular length (4.3 mm) and mandibular ramus height (3.1 mm) associated with a significant advancement of the bony chin (3.9 mm) when compared with treatment before puberty. Conclusion: Treatment of Class II malocclusion with functional appliances appears to be more effective at puberty.
    The Angle Orthodontist 08/2012; 83(2). DOI:10.2319/052912-450.1 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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