Alcohol preference drinking in a mouse line selectively bred for high drinking in the dark.
ABSTRACT We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by many of the same genes. We therefore asked whether HDID-1 mice would differ from the HS/Npt control stock on two-bottle preference drinking. We serially offered mice access to 3-40% ethanol in tap water versus tap water. For ethanol concentrations between 3 and 20%, HDID-1 and HS/Npt controls did not differ in two-bottle preference drinking. At the highest concentrations, the HS/Npt mice drank more than the HDID-1 mice. We also tested the same mice for preference for two concentrations each of quinine, sucrose, and saccharin. Curiously, the mice showed preference ratios (volume of tastant/total fluid drunk) of about 50% for all tastants and concentrations. Thus, neither genotype showed either preference or avoidance for any tastant after high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we compared naive groups of HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice for tastant preference. Results from this test showed that ethanol-naive mice preferred sweet fluids and avoided quinine but the genotypes did not differ. Finally, we tested HDID-1 and HS mice for an extended period for preference for 15% ethanol versus water during a 2-h access period in the dark. After several weeks, HDID-1 mice consumed significantly more than HS. We conclude that drinking in the dark shows some genetic overlap with other tests of preference drinking, but that the degree of genetic commonality depends on the model used.
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ABSTRACT: From several recent strain surveys (28 strains: Bachmanov et al., personal communication; 22 strains: Finn et al., unpublished), and from data in >100 other published studies of 24-hr two-bottle ethanol preference, it is known that male C57BL/6 (B6) mice self-administer about 10-14 g/kg/day and that female B6 mice self-administer about 12-18 g/kg/day. No strain has been found to consume more ethanol than B6. In one of our laboratories (Texas), we noted a markedly greater intake of ethanol in an F1 hybrid of B6 and FVB/NJ (FVB) mice. To confirm and extend this finding, we repeated the study at another site (Portland) using concentrations up to 30% ethanol and also tested B6xFVB F1 mice in restricted access drinking procedures that produce high levels of alcohol intake. At both sites, we found that B6xFVB F1 mice self-administered high levels of ethanol during two-bottle preference tests (females averaging from 20 to 35 g/kg/day, males 7-25 g/kg/day, depending on concentration). F1 hybrids of both sexes drank significantly more 20% ethanol than both the B6 and FVB strains. Female F1 hybrids also drank more 30% ethanol. In the restricted access tests, ethanol consumption in the F1 hybrids was equivalent to that in B6 mice. These data show that this new genetic model has some significant advantages when compared to existing inbred strains, and could be used to explore the genetic basis of high ethanol drinking in mice.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2005; 29(11):1949-58. · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: Predictive model for the (14)C radioactivity in a plant following an exposure to airborne (14)CO(2) gas.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper provides details of a dynamic compartment model for estimating the (14)C radioactivity in an agricultural plant exposed to an amount of airborne (14)CO(2) gas. The plant, in the model, is divided into two compartments, the plant body (shoot and root) and ears, to predict the radioactivity of different parts of a plant. The carbon transports from, to and between the compartments are described by the processes of a photosynthesis, respiration, and translocation. The carbon transport fluxes of these processes are determined from the growth rates of a plant, which are usually easily attained. The model predictions showed that the present model could converge to a region where the specific activity model is applicable when the elapsed exposure time was extended up to the harvest time of a plant. The (14)C activity of a plant was greatly affected by the elapsed exposure time, the developmental stages of a plant at an exposure time, and the airborne (14)C activity during an exposure. It was expected that the peak of the ears' (14)C activity appeared when the exposure time was close to the ears-maturity date. The model predictions agreed reasonably well with the measured (14)C radioactivity of the rice plants that were artificially exposed to (14)CO(2) of a high (14)C source for a short period of time in an exposure box.Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 10/2008; 99(11):1756-63. · 1.34 Impact Factor