Determining the optimal window length for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control: balancing the competing effects of classification error and controller delay.
ABSTRACT Pattern recognition-based control of myoelectric prostheses has shown great promise in research environments, but has not been optimized for use in a clinical setting. To explore the relationship between classification error, controller delay, and real-time controllability, 13 able-bodied subjects were trained to operate a virtual upper-limb prosthesis using pattern recognition of electromyogram (EMG) signals. Classification error and controller delay were varied by training different classifiers with a variety of analysis window lengths ranging from 50 to 550 ms and either two or four EMG input channels. Offline analysis showed that classification error decreased with longer window lengths (p < 0.01 ). Real-time controllability was evaluated with the target achievement control (TAC) test, which prompted users to maneuver the virtual prosthesis into various target postures. The results indicated that user performance improved with lower classification error (p < 0.01 ) and was reduced with longer controller delay (p < 0.01 ), as determined by the window length. Therefore, both of these effects should be considered when choosing a window length; it may be beneficial to increase the window length if this results in a reduced classification error, despite the corresponding increase in controller delay. For the system employed in this study, the optimal window length was found to be between 150 and 250 ms, which is within acceptable controller delays for conventional multistate amplitude controllers.
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ABSTRACT: Pattern recognition (PR) based strategies for the control of myoelectric upper limb prostheses are generally evaluated through offline classification accuracy, which is an admittedly useful metric, but insufficient to discuss functional performance in real time. Existing functional tests are extensive to set up and most fail to provide a challenging, objective framework to assess the strategy performance in real time.Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 05/2014; 11(1):91. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myoelectric control has been used for decades to control powered upper limb prostheses. Conventional, amplitude-based control has been employed to control a single prosthesis degree of freedom (DOF) such as closing and opening of the hand. Within the last decade, new and advanced arm and hand prostheses have been constructed that are capable of actuating numerous DOFs. Pattern recognition control has been proposed to control a greater number of DOFs than conventional control, but has traditionally been limited to sequentially controlling DOFs one at a time. However, able-bodied individuals use multiple DOFs simultaneously, and it may be beneficial to provide amputees the ability to perform simultaneous movements. In this study, four amputees who had undergone targeted motor reinnervation (TMR) surgery with previous training using myoelectric prostheses were configured to use three control strategies: 1) conventional amplitude-based myoelectric control, 2) sequential (one-DOF) pattern recognition control, 3) simultaneous pattern recognition control. Simultaneous pattern recognition was enabled by having amputees train each simultaneous movement as a separate motion class. For tasks that required control over just one DOF, sequential pattern recognition based control performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error. For tasks that required control over 2 DOFs, the simultaneous pattern recognition controller performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error compared to the other control strategies. In the two strategies in which users could employ simultaneous movements (conventional and simultaneous pattern recognition), amputees chose to use simultaneous movements 78% of the time with simultaneous pattern recognition and 64% of the time with conventional control for tasks that required two DOF motions to reach the target. These results suggest that when amputees are given the ability to control multiple DOFs simultaneously, they choose to perform tasks that utilize multiple DOFs with simultaneous movements. Additionally, they were able to perform these tasks with higher performance (faster speed, lower length error and higher completion rates) without losing substantial performance in 1 DOF tasks.Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 01/2014; 11(1):5. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been increasing interest in applying learning algorithms to improve the dexterity of myoelectric prostheses. In this work, we present a large-scale benchmark evaluation on the second iteration of the publicly released NinaPro database, which contains surface electromyography data for 6 DOF force activations as well as for 40 discrete hand movements. The evaluation involves a modern kernel method and compares performance of three feature representations and three kernel functions. Both the force regression and movement classification problems can be learned successfully when using a non-linear kernel function, while the exp-2 kernel outperforms the more popular Radial Basis Function kernel in all cases. Furthermore, combining surface electromyography and accelerometry in a multimodal classifier results in significant increases in accuracy as compared to when either modality is used individually. Since window-based classification accuracy should not be considered in isolation to estimate prosthetic controllability, we also provide results in terms of classification mistakes and prediction delay. To this extent, we propose the Movement Error Rate as an alternative to the standard window-based accuracy. This error rate is insensitive to prediction delays and it allows therefore to quantify mistakes and delays as independent performance characteristics. This type of analysis confirms that the inclusion of accelerometry is superior, as it results in fewer mistakes while at the same time reducing prediction delay.IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering: a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor