Article

PPARδ deficient mice develop elevated Th1/Th17 responses and prolonged experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Brain research (Impact Factor: 2.83). 02/2011; 1376:101-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that affects more than a million people worldwide. The etiology of MS is not known and there is no medical treatment that can cure MS. Earlier studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) agonists ameliorate MS-like disease in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study we have used PPARδ deficient mice to determine its physiological role in the regulation of CNS EAE and MS. We found that PPARδ(-/-) mice develop EAE with similar day of onset and disease incidence compared to C57BL/6 wild type mice. Interestingly, both male and female PPARδ(-/-) mice showed prolonged EAE with resistance to remission and recovery. PPARδ(-/-) mice with EAE expressed elevated levels of IFNγ and IL-17 along with IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 in the brain and spleen. PPARδ(-/-) mice also developed augmented neural antigen-specific Th1/Th17 responses and impaired Th2/Treg responses compared to wild type mice. These findings indicate that PPARδ(-/-) mice develop prolonged EAE in association with augmented Th1/Th17 responses, suggesting a critical physiological role for PPARδ in the remission and recovery of EAE.

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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), results from uncontrolled auto reactive T cells that infiltrate the CNS and attack the myelin sheath. Th17 cells play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Extensive studies have focused on understanding the roles of cytokine signaling and transcriptional network in the differentiation of Th17 cells and their pathogenicity in CNS inflammation. Aside from these events, activated T cells dynamically reprogram their metabolic pathways to fulfill the bioenergic and biosynthetic requirements for proper T cell functions. Emerging evidence indicates that modulation of these metabolic pathways impinges upon the differentiation of Th17 cells and the pathogenesis of EAE. Thus, a better understanding of the functions and mechanisms of T cell metabolism in Th17 cell biology may provide new avenues for therapeutic targeting of MS. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of T cell metabolic pathways involved in Th17 cell differentiation and CNS inflammation.
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    PPAR Research 10/2011; 2011:373560. DOI:10.1155/2011/373560 · 1.64 Impact Factor

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