PPARδ deficient mice develop elevated Th1/Th17 responses and prolonged experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Brain research (Impact Factor: 2.83). 02/2011; 1376:101-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that affects more than a million people worldwide. The etiology of MS is not known and there is no medical treatment that can cure MS. Earlier studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) agonists ameliorate MS-like disease in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study we have used PPARδ deficient mice to determine its physiological role in the regulation of CNS EAE and MS. We found that PPARδ(-/-) mice develop EAE with similar day of onset and disease incidence compared to C57BL/6 wild type mice. Interestingly, both male and female PPARδ(-/-) mice showed prolonged EAE with resistance to remission and recovery. PPARδ(-/-) mice with EAE expressed elevated levels of IFNγ and IL-17 along with IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 in the brain and spleen. PPARδ(-/-) mice also developed augmented neural antigen-specific Th1/Th17 responses and impaired Th2/Treg responses compared to wild type mice. These findings indicate that PPARδ(-/-) mice develop prolonged EAE in association with augmented Th1/Th17 responses, suggesting a critical physiological role for PPARδ in the remission and recovery of EAE.

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    • "PPAR deficient mice had exaggerated EAE symptoms (S.E. Dunn et al., 2010; Kanakasabai et al., 2011) and agonists of PPARγ and PPARα reduced EAE incidence and clinical scores (Diab et al., 2004; Dasgupta et al., 2007). These studies support the experience that immune modulatory functions of endocannabinoids or cannabis are not fully mimicked with Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) alone, and exogenous cannabinoids cannot replace a dysfunctional endogenous cannabinoid system. "
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