Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow as Biomarker of Drug Effect: Arterial Spin Labeling phMRI After a Single Dose of Oral Citalopram
ABSTRACT Arterial spin labeling (ASL) allows noninvasive quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which can be used as a biomarker of drug effects in pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we investigated the effects of a single oral dose of citalopram (20 mg) on resting CBF in 12 healthy subjects, using ASL phMRI. Support-vector machine (SVM) analysis detected significant drug-induced reduction in CBF in brain regions including the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. These regions have been shown to have abnormally elevated CBF in patients with major depression, as well as in subjects genetically prone to depression. Mixed-effects analysis on data extracted from selected regions of interest (ROIs) revealed significant drug effect only in serotonergic areas of the brain (z = -4.45, P < 0.005). These results demonstrate the utility of ASL phMRI as a biomarker of pharmacological activity of orally administered drugs in the brain.
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ABSTRACT: Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) fMRI (rs-fcMRI) offers an appealing approach to mapping the brain's intrinsic functional organization. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) are the two main rs-fcMRI approaches to assess alterations in brain networks associated with individual differences, behavior and psychopathology. While the BOLD signal is stronger with a higher temporal resolution, ASL provides quantitative, direct measures of the physiology and metabolism of specific networks. This study systematically investigated the similarity and reliability of resting brain networks (RBNs) in BOLD and ASL. A 2×2×2 factorial design was employed where each subject underwent repeated BOLD and ASL rs-fcMRI scans on two occasions on two MRI scanners respectively. Both independent and joint FC analyses revealed common RBNs in ASL and BOLD rs-fcMRI with a moderate to high level of spatial overlap, verified by Dice Similarity Coefficients. Test-retest analyses indicated more reliable spatial network patterns in BOLD (average modal Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.905±0.033 between-sessions; 0.885±0.052 between-scanners) than ASL (0.545±0.048; 0.575±0.059). Nevertheless, ASL provided highly reproducible (0.955±0.021; 0.970±0.011) network-specific CBF measurements. Moreover, we observed positive correlations between regional CBF and FC in core areas of all RBNs indicating a relationship between network connectivity and its baseline metabolism. Taken together, the combination of ASL and BOLD rs-fcMRI provides a powerful tool for characterizing the spatiotemporal and quantitative properties of RBNs. These findings pave the way for future BOLD and ASL rs-fcMRI studies in clinical populations that are carried out across time and scanners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.NeuroImage 11/2014; 106. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.11.028 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated altered brain functional connectivity in the resting state in depression. However, no study has investigated interregional networking in patients with persistent depressive disorder (PDD). The aim of this study was to assess differences in brain perfusion distribution and connectivity between large groups of patients and healthy controls. Participants comprised 91 patients with PDD and 65 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting state perfusion was investigated by single photon emission computed tomography, and group differences were assessed by Statistical Parametric Mapping. Brain connectivity was explored through a voxel-wise interregional correlation analysis using as covariate of interest the normalized values of clusters of voxels in which perfusion differences were found in group analysis. Significantly increased regional brain perfusion distribution covering a large part of the cerebellum was observed in patients as compared with controls. Patients showed a significant negative functional connectivity between the cerebellar cluster and caudate, bilaterally. This study demonstrated inverse relative perfusion between the cerebellum and the caudate in PDD. Functional uncoupling may be associated with a dysregulation between the role of the cerebellum in action control and of the caudate in action selection, initiation and decision making in the patients. The potential impact of the resting state condition and the possibility of mitochondrial impairment are discussed.Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 05/2014; 223(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.05.008 · 2.83 Impact Factor