Rara haploinsufficiency modestly influences the phenotype of acute promyelocytic leukemia in mice
ABSTRACT RARA (retinoic acid receptor alpha) haploinsufficiency is an invariable consequence of t(15;17)(q22;q21) translocations in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Retinoids and RARA activity have been implicated in hematopoietic self-renewal and neutrophil maturation. We and others therefore predicted that RARA haploinsufficiency would contribute to APL pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we crossed Rara(+/-) mice with mice expressing PML (promyelocytic leukemia)-RARA from the cathepsin G locus (mCG-PR). We found that Rara haploinsufficiency cooperated with PML-RARA, but only modestly influenced the preleukemic and leukemic phenotype. Bone marrow from mCG-PR(+/-) × Rara(+/-) mice had decreased numbers of mature myeloid cells, increased ex vivo myeloid cell proliferation, and increased competitive advantage after transplantation. Rara haploinsufficiency did not alter mCG-PR-dependent leukemic latency or penetrance, but did influence the distribution of leukemic cells; leukemia in mCG-PR(+/-) × Rara(+/-) mice presented more commonly with low to normal white blood cell counts and with myeloid infiltration of lymph nodes. APL cells from these mice were responsive to all-trans retinoic acid and had virtually no differences in expression profiling compared with tumors arising in mCG-PR(+/-) × Rara(+/+) mice. These data show that Rara haploinsufficiency (like Pml haploinsufficiency and RARA-PML) can cooperate with PML-RARA to influence the pathogenesis of APL in mice, but that PML-RARA is the t(15;17) disease-initiating mutation.
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- "Cells used for competitive repopulation studies were injected retroorbitally, as previously described , . Two separate experiments were performed, and the data was combined for analysis. "
ABSTRACT: Because PML-RARA-induced acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a morphologically differentiated leukemia, many groups have speculated about whether its leukemic cell of origin is a committed myeloid precursor (e.g. a promyelocyte) versus an hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC). We originally targeted PML-RARA expression with CTSG regulatory elements, based on the early observation that this gene was maximally expressed in cells with promyelocyte morphology. Here, we show that both Ctsg, and PML-RARA targeted to the Ctsg locus (in Ctsg-PML-RARA mice), are expressed in the purified KLS cells of these mice (KLS = Kit(+)Lin(-)Sca(+), which are highly enriched for HSPCs), and this expression results in biological effects in multi-lineage competitive repopulation assays. Further, we demonstrate the transcriptional consequences of PML-RARA expression in Ctsg-PML-RARA mice in early myeloid development in other myeloid progenitor compartments [common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs)], which have a distinct gene expression signature compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Although PML-RARA is indeed expressed at high levels in the promyelocytes of Ctsg-PML-RARA mice and alters the transcriptional signature of these cells, it does not induce their self-renewal. In sum, these results demonstrate that in the Ctsg-PML-RARA mouse model of APL, PML-RARA is expressed in and affects the function of multipotent progenitor cells. Finally, since PML/Pml is normally expressed in the HSPCs of both humans and mice, and since some human APL samples contain TCR rearrangements and express T lineage genes, we suggest that the very early hematopoietic expression of PML-RARA in this mouse model may closely mimic the physiologic expression pattern of PML-RARA in human APL patients.PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e46529. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046529 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17) translocation that generates the fusion protein promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α (PML-RARA) in nearly all cases. Multiple prior mouse models of APL constitutively express PML-RARA from a variety of non-Pml loci. Typically, all animals develop a myeloproliferative disease, followed by leukemia in a subset of animals after a long latent period. In contrast, human APL is not associated with an antecedent stage of myeloproliferation. To address this discrepancy, we have generated a system whereby PML-RARA expression is somatically acquired from the mouse Pml locus in the context of Pml haploinsufficiency. We found that physiologic PML-RARA expression was sufficient to direct a hematopoietic progenitor self-renewal program in vitro and in vivo. However, this expansion was not associated with evidence of myeloproliferation, more accurately reflecting the clinical presentation of human APL. Thus, at physiologic doses, PML-RARA primarily acts to increase hematopoietic progenitor self-renewal, expanding a population of cells that are susceptible to acquiring secondary mutations that cause progression to leukemia. This mouse model provides a platform for more accurately dissecting the early events in APL pathogenesis.The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2011; 121(4):1636-45. DOI:10.1172/JCI42953 · 13.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most mutations in cancer genomes are thought to be acquired after the initiating event, which may cause genomic instability and drive clonal evolution. However, for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), normal karyotypes are common, and genomic instability is unusual. To better understand clonal evolution in AML, we sequenced the genomes of M3-AML samples with a known initiating event (PML-RARA) versus the genomes of normal karyotype M1-AML samples and the exomes of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from healthy people. Collectively, the data suggest that most of the mutations found in AML genomes are actually random events that occurred in HSPCs before they acquired the initiating mutation; the mutational history of that cell is "captured" as the clone expands. In many cases, only one or two additional, cooperating mutations are needed to generate the malignant founding clone. Cells from the founding clone can acquire additional cooperating mutations, yielding subclones that can contribute to disease progression and/or relapse.Cell 07/2012; 150(2):264-78. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.023 · 32.24 Impact Factor