Use of hematological and plasma biochemical parameters to assess the chronic effects of a fungicide propiconazole on a freshwater teleost.
ABSTRACT Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, the chronic effects of propiconazole, a triazole fungicide present in aquatic environment, on hematology of rainbow trout were investigated in this study. Fish were exposed at various concentrations of PCZ (0.2, 50 and 500 μg L(-1)) for 7, 20 and 30 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including hematological indices (hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells count, hematocrit, leukocyte count, mean erythrocyte hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume and mean color concentration) and plasma biochemical parameters (ammonia, glucose, total proteins, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, influence extent induced by PCZ-stress of each test group was distinguished. Additional, all parameters measured in this study displayed different dependent patterns to PCZ concentrations and exposure time by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study indicate that chronic exposure of PCZ has altered multiple physiological indices in fish hematology and CK activity may be an early biomarker of PCZ toxicity; however, before these parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual PCZ in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future.
Article: The effects of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation and cardiomyopathy syndrome on creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N = 173). Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P = 0.001). However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising.TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 01/2012; 2012:741302. · 1.66 Impact Factor