Developing an Individualized Treatment Plan for Patients With Schizoaffective Disorder: From Pharmacotherapy to Psychoeducation
ABSTRACT To develop an individualized treatment plan that addresses both psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizoaffective disorder, clinicians can take several steps. First, clinicians can confirm the diagnosis. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), schizoaffective disorder is defined differently, but, diagnostically, the disorder falls on a spectrum between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and can be divided into bipolar and depressive types. Next, clinicians can evaluate predictors of outcome. Outcomes can be predicted by previous functioning, number of previous episodes, persistence of psychotic symptoms, and level of cognitive impairment. Then, clinicians can use evidence from clinical trials to guide selection of acute and maintenance phase treatment. Although data are limited, direct and indirect evidence from clinical trials support pharmacologic and psychoeducational interventions. In bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, evidence supports the use of an atypical antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic monotherapy. In the depressive type of the disorder, the combination of an atypical antipsychotic and an antidepressant is probably the best choice, but an atypical antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer could also be used. In both types of the disorder, patient psychoeducation can be beneficial in the maintenance phase of treatment. Adherence to treatment is essential for optimal outcome, and, besides patient psychoeducation, long-acting injectable antipsychotics and psychoeducation for caregivers may also improve adherence. In refractory cases, electroconvulsive therapy is an option.
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ABSTRACT: The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) examines parent-child bonds and attachment during the first 16years. Our study aims to compare PBI scores between patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). We analyzed PBI scores in 59 patients with schizophrenia, 36 with BD and 52 healthy controls using ANCOVA, with age, gender and years of education as covariates. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. PBI has maternal and paternal scores, each one with two domains: care and overprotection. In PBI maternal and paternal care domains, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher scores when compared with BD patients (p<0.001). However, when compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia only showed significantly higher scores of PBI maternal care domain (p=0.037). BD patients showed significantly lower PBI care scores compared with healthy controls (maternal score: p=0.016; paternal score: p<0.001). In PBI maternal and paternal overprotection domain, BD patients showed significantly higher scores compared with patients with schizophrenia (p=0.004; p=0.021) and healthy controls (p=0.014; p=0.008); while no significant difference was observed between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. "P values" are according to Bonferroni correction. There are significant differences in the perception of attachment between schizophrenia and BD. This finding may shed some light to better understand the prodromal symptoms of each disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Schizophrenia Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.032 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. To systematically review the evidence about the switching of antipsychotics in SZA in acute and maintenance treatment. Methods. A systematic review following the PRISMA statement identifying studies specifically conducted on, or including, SZA patients. Results. One analysis considered uniquely a SZA population, 13 more studies including an adequate SZA subsample were considered. Most of the studies were aimed at switching antipsychotic treatments to improve tolerability issues. Despite the absolute lack of trials specifically conducted on SZA populations, we found limited evidence on the use of aripiprazole, lurasidone, and, to a lesser extent, risperidone and ziprasidone as possible agents to substitute previous treatments whereas efficacy or, more frequently, tolerability issues arise. Evidence supports also the switch to risperidone long-acting injectable when the adherence to oral treatment may be a concern. Conclusions. Antipsychotic switching in SZA is a neglected topic that would need better profiling. Clinicians should keep in mind the receptor binding characteristics of drugs in order to optimize transitions. Evidence supports the switch to aripiprazole and lurasidone, less strongly to risperidone and ziprasidone. The switch to risperidone long-acting injectable is supported, especially in patients with limited treatment adherence to oral therapy.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/15622975.2015.1012225 · 4.23 Impact Factor
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 01/2012; 81(6):389-390. DOI:10.1159/000338022 · 9.37 Impact Factor