To develop an individualized treatment plan that addresses both psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizoaffective disorder, clinicians can take several steps. First, clinicians can confirm the diagnosis. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), schizoaffective disorder is defined differently, but, diagnostically, the disorder falls on a spectrum between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and can be divided into bipolar and depressive types. Next, clinicians can evaluate predictors of outcome. Outcomes can be predicted by previous functioning, number of previous episodes, persistence of psychotic symptoms, and level of cognitive impairment. Then, clinicians can use evidence from clinical trials to guide selection of acute and maintenance phase treatment. Although data are limited, direct and indirect evidence from clinical trials support pharmacologic and psychoeducational interventions. In bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, evidence supports the use of an atypical antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic monotherapy. In the depressive type of the disorder, the combination of an atypical antipsychotic and an antidepressant is probably the best choice, but an atypical antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer could also be used. In both types of the disorder, patient psychoeducation can be beneficial in the maintenance phase of treatment. Adherence to treatment is essential for optimal outcome, and, besides patient psychoeducation, long-acting injectable antipsychotics and psychoeducation for caregivers may also improve adherence. In refractory cases, electroconvulsive therapy is an option.
"Many patients with BD and SCZ are initially misdiagnosed especially in the early stages of both disorders (Young, 2009). The diagnostic difficulties between them are common (Vieta, 2010). The consequences of misdiagnosis can include worsening of manic or depression symptoms, increased drug resistance, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of suicide (Young, 2009). "
"The majority of AP drugs can be classified as either typical or atypical APs. Generally, atypical APs are the preferred class of drugs as they demonstrate improvements on a variety of symptoms with fewer side effects than typical APs (Vieta, 2010). However, AP medication, regardless of class, may have undesirable side effects or ineffective responses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To improve antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia patients, many studies have investigated genetic polymorphisms associated with antipsychotic metabolizing enzymes and receptors. While these studies have typically focused on drug response, few have investigated genetic influences on antipsychotic dosage. This study set out to analyze the association between 134 SNPs in 38 candidate genes and antipsychotic dosage in schizophrenia patients.
For our analysis, 300 patients with a diagnosis of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited between the ages of 18 and 75. A cross-sectional assessment was used, in which data were collected from each participant through an interview and self-report questionnaire. Antipsychotic dose was standardized according to the chlorpromazine equivalents, defined daily dose and relative to the maximum dose specified in the product monograph. Participants were genotyped using a Customized Illumina Chip comprising 134 SNPs, and all markers were screened for nominal significance.
The analysis showed a nominally significant association with the GFRA1 gene.
The common variants investigated in this study had no major influence on the antipsychotic dosage prescribed in study participants. It remains, though, that this strategy may prove valuable clinically and warrants further investigation.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 07/2014; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.07.001 · 3.69 Impact Factor
"3/3 of measures indicating proper adherence) or " poor " (2/3, 1/3 or 0/3 measures indicating proper adherence) adherence definition. This extensive evaluation followed previous publications in the field (Colom et al., 2000; Vieta et al., 2011b; Velligan et al., 2010). Adherence to treatment was cross-sectionally evaluated between August and September, 2011. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor adherence rates in Bipolar Disorder type I (BDI) and Schizoaffective Disorder, bipolar type (SAD) may be high This study was aimed at comparing the clinical correlates of adherence to treatment and the course of illness in BDI and SAD patients.
75 SAD and 150 BDI DSM-IV outpatients were included. Adherence was assessed on the basis of patients' and care-givers' reports and serum levels, when available. Socio-demographic, clinical and treatment variables were collected and compared between diagnostic subsamples and then between goodly and poorly adherent patients. Multiple logistic regressions were performed, controlling for diagnostic subsample differences, to identify correlates of adherence in BDI and SAD groups.
Poor adherence was highly prevalent both in BDI (32%) and in SAD patients (44%), with no significant differences between diagnostic categories. Presence of psychotic symptoms (p=0.029), higher number of manic relapses (p<0.001), comorbidity with personality disorders (p=0.002), and lithium therapy (p=0.003) were associated with poor adherence to treatment. Diagnostic subgroup analyses showed different predictive models, with the BDI poorly adherent subsample being more likely to include comorbid personality and manic recurrences and the SAD poorly adherent subsample being less clinically predictable.
The cross-sectional nature of the study limits de capacity to ascertain the direction of the relationship between certain variables.
Rates of poor adherence to oral treatments are similar in SAD and BDI. BDI patients with comorbid personality and substance use disorders are likely to be poorly adherent. Treatment adherence may be more difficult to predict in SAD patients.
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