Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women

Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
Arbeitsphysiologie (Impact Factor: 2.19). 12/2010; 111(8):1591-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-010-1777-z
Source: PubMed


Very high-intensity, low-volume, sprint interval training (SIT) increases muscle oxidative capacity and may increase maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), but whether circulatory function is improved, and whether SIT is feasible in overweight/obese women is unknown. To examine the effects of SIT on [Formula: see text] and circulatory function in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Twenty-eight women with BMI > 25 were randomly assigned to SIT or control (CON) groups. One week before pre-testing, subjects were familarized to [Formula: see text] testing and the workload that elicited 50% [Formula: see text] was calculated. Pre- and post-intervention, circulatory function was measured at 50% of the pre-intervention [Formula: see text], and a GXT was performed to determine [Formula: see text]. During the intervention, SIT training was given for 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 4-7, 30-s sprints on a stationary cycle (5% body mass as resistance) with 4 min active recovery between sprints. CON maintained baseline physical activity. Post-intervention, heart rate (HR) was significantly lower and stroke volume (SV) significantly higher in SIT (-8.1 and 11.4%, respectively; P < 0.05) during cycling at 50% [Formula: see text]; changes in CON were not significant (3 and -4%, respectively). Changes in cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arteriovenous oxygen content difference [(a - v)O(2) diff] were not significantly different for SIT or CON. The increase in [Formula: see text] by SIT was significantly greater than by CON (12 vs. -1%). Changes by SIT and CON in HR(max) (-1 vs. -1%) were not significantly different. Four weeks of SIT improve circulatory function during submaximal exercise and increases [Formula: see text] in sedentary, overweight/obese women.

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    • "With sufficient recovery between exercise bouts, multiple sprints can be performed within one exercise session to ultimately provide a large physiological stimulus. Sprint interval training has also been used in clinical populations to improve health-related outcomes (Trilk et al., 2011; Whyte, Ferguson, Wilson, Scott, & Gill, 2013; Whyte et al., 2010). A number of practices have attempted to improve the efficiency of recovery within a bout of high-intensity exercise, with " active recovery " commonly practiced by "
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of active versus passive recovery on 6 repeated Wingate tests (30-s all-out cycling sprints on a Velotron ergometer). METHOD: Fifteen healthy participants aged 29 (SD = 8) years old (body mass index = 23 [3] kg/m(2)) participated in 3 sprint interval training sessions separated by 3 to 7 days between each session during a period of 1 month. The 1st visit was familiarization to 6 cycling sprints; the 2nd and 3rd visits involved a warm-up followed by 6 30-s cycling sprints. Each sprint was followed by 4 min of passive (resting still on the ergometer) or active recovery (pedaling at 1.1 W/kg). The same recovery was used within each visit, and recovery type was randomized between visits. RESULTS: Active recovery resulted in a 0.6 W/kg lower peak power output in the second sprint (95% confidence interval [CI] [ - 0.2, - 0.8 W/kg], effect size = 0.50, p < .01) and a 0.4 W/kg greater average power output in the 5th and 6th sprints (95% CI [+0.2,+0.6 W/kg], effect size = 0.50, p < .01) compared with passive recovery. There was little difference between fatigue index, total work, or accumulated work between the 2 recovery conditions. CONCLUSIONS:Passive recovery is beneficial when only 2 sprints are completed, whereas active recovery better maintains average power output compared with passive recovery when several sprints are performed sequentially (partial eta squared between conditions for multiple sprints = .38).
    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 12/2014; 85(4):519-526. DOI:10.1080/02701367.2014.961055
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    • "aAll-out: encompasses intensities described by the authors as “maximal” [24]; “near maximal” [43]; “sprints” [33]; “maximum efforts” [38, 44]; “supramaximal” [23]; “sprint training at the highest resistance maintained for 90 rpm” [32]; or “all-out” [21, 22, 25, 28–30, 34–37, 41, 42, 45, 48]. %P max encompasses intensities described as either a ‘percentage of peak watt workload’ [50]; a ‘percentage of the highest 30 s power output completed’ [47]; a ‘percentage of peak work rate’ [20, 39]; a ‘percentage of final completed work rate maintained for 10 s’ [28, 49]; a ‘percentage of peak power output’[31]; a ‘percentage of their final workload’ [27] (all determined via a pre-training incremental test) "
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    ABSTRACT: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) appears to be an efficient and practical way to develop physical fitness. Our objective was to estimate meta-analysed mean effects of HIT on aerobic power (maximum oxygen consumption [VO2max] in an incremental test) and sprint fitness (peak and mean power in a 30-s Wingate test). Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, BIOSIS and Web of Science) were searched for original research articles published up to January 2014. Search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint', 'fitness' and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were fitness assessed pre- and post-training; training period ≥2 weeks; repetition duration 30-60 s; work/rest ratio <1.0; exercise intensity described as maximal or near maximal; adult subjects aged >18 years. The final data set consisted of 55 estimates from 32 trials for VO2max, 23 estimates from 16 trials for peak sprint power, and 19 estimates from 12 trials for mean sprint power. Effects on fitness were analysed as percentages via log transformation. Standard errors calculated from exact p values (where reported) or imputed from errors of measurement provided appropriate weightings. Fixed effects in the meta-regression model included type of study (controlled, uncontrolled), subject characteristics (sex, training status, baseline fitness) and training parameters (number of training sessions, repetition duration, work/rest ratio). Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardized thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations (SDs) for baseline fitness. A mean low-volume HIT protocol (13 training sessions, 0.16 work/rest ratio) in a controlled trial produced a likely moderate improvement in the VO2max of active non-athletic males (6.2 %; 90 % confidence limits ±3.1 %), when compared with control. There were possibly moderate improvements in the VO2max of sedentary males (10.0 %; ±5.1 %) and active non-athletic females (3.6 %; ±4.3 %) and a likely small increase for sedentary females (7.3 %; ±4.8 %). The effect on the VO2max of athletic males was unclear (2.7 %; ±4.6 %). A possibly moderate additional increase was likely for subjects with a 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) lower baseline VO2max (3.8 %; ±2.5 %), whereas the modifying effects of sex and difference in exercise dose were unclear. The comparison of HIT with traditional endurance training was unclear (-1.6 %; ±4.3 %). Unexplained variation between studies was 2.0 % (SD). Meta-analysed effects of HIT on Wingate peak and mean power were unclear. Low-volume HIT produces moderate improvements in the aerobic power of active non-athletic and sedentary subjects. More studies are needed to resolve the unclear modifying effects of sex and HIT dose on aerobic power and the unclear effects on sprint fitness.
    04/2014; 44(7). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0180-z
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    • "Several of the selected studies have reported significant improvements in performance (Burgomaster et al., 2005, 2006; Gibala et al., 2006; Babraj et al., 2009; Bailey et al., 2009; Hazell et al., 2010), VO 2max (Bailey et al., 2009; Hazell et al., 2010; Whyte et al., 2010; Astorino et al., 2011, 2012; Bayati et al., 2011) and muscle oxidative potential (Burgomaster et al., 2005, 2006; Gibala et al., 2006) following only 2 weeks of training (three sessions/week) applying a very low weekly training volume (Յ12 min of exercise time). However, there seem to be no clear relationship between the magnitude of improvements in VO 2max or muscle oxidative potential and the duration of training when, comparing the results from the studies applying two (Burgomaster et al., 2005, 2006; Gibala et al., 2006; Bailey et al., 2009; Hazell et al., 2010; Whyte et al., 2010; Astorino et al., 2011; Bayati et al., 2011) and 4–8 weeks (McKenna et al., 1997; MacDougall et al., 1998; Barnett et al., 2004; Burgomaster et al., 2007, 2008; Rakobowchuk et al., 2008; Bayati et al., 2011; Macpherson et al., 2011; Metcalfe et al., 2011; Trilk et al., 2011) of SIT, respectively. The mean improvements in VO 2max after 2 weeks of SIT is 6.8% compared to 9.6% after 4–8 weeks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity following SIT. In conclusion, strong evidence support improvement of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT, which coincides with peripheral muscular adaptations. Future RCTs on long-term SIT and underlying mechanisms are warranted.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 07/2013; 23(6). DOI:10.1111/sms.12092 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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