Converging pathways in the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in Huntington's disease.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, FONDAP Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell (CEMC), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Current Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.61). 02/2011; 11(1):1-12. DOI: 10.2174/156652411794474419
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A variety of neurological diseases including Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease share common neuropathology, primarily featuring the presence of abnormal protein inclusions containing specific misfolded proteins. Mutations leading to expansion of a poly-glutamine track in Huntingtin cause HD, and trigger its misfolding and aggregation. Recent evidence indicates that alterations in the secretory pathway, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging features of HD. Although it is not clear how cytoplasmic/nuclear located mutant Huntingtin alters the function of the ER, several reports indicate that mutant Huntingtin affects many essential processes related to the secretory pathway, including inhibition of ER-associated degradation, altered ER/Golgi vesicular trafficking and axonal transport, disrupted autophagy and abnormal ER calcium homeostasis. All these alterations are predicted to have a common pathological outcome associated to disturbance of protein folding and maturation pathways at the ER, generating chronic ER stress and neuronal dysfunction. Here, we review recent evidence involving ER stress in HD pathogenesis and discuss possible therapeutic strategies to target organelle function in the context of disease.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal day (PD) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1-CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2015; 283(3). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2014.12.019 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2) protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.
    Journal of Immunology Research 12/2014; 2014:140728. DOI:10.1155/2014/140728 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the point of entry of proteins into the secretory pathway. Nascent peptides interact with the ER quality control machinery that ensures correct folding of the nascent proteins. Failure to properly fold proteins can lead to loss of protein function and cytotoxic aggregation of misfolded proteins that can lead to cell death. To cope with increases in the ER unfolded secretory protein burden, cells have evolved the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The UPR is the primary signaling pathway that monitors the state of the ER folding environment. When the unfolded protein burden overwhelms the capacity of the ER quality control machinery, a state termed ER stress, sensor proteins detect accumulation of misfolded peptides and trigger the UPR transcriptional response. The UPR, which is conserved from yeast to mammals, consists of an ensemble of complex signaling pathways that aims at adapting the ER to the new misfolded protein load. To determine how different factors impact the ER folding environment, various tools and assays have been developed. In this review, we discuss recent advances in live cell imaging reporters and model systems that enable researchers to monitor changes in the unfolded secretory protein burden and activation of the UPR and its associated signaling pathways.
    01/2014; 1(1):27-39. DOI:10.2478/ersc-2014-0002,

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Nov 24, 2014

Similar Publications