High-dose glucose-insulin-potassium has hemodynamic benefits and can improve cardiac remodeling in acute myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention: From a randomized controlled study.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effects of high-dose glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solution on hemodynamics and cardiac remodeling in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
We observed the changes in the hemodynamic parameters in 26 patients with AMI. All patients received primary PCI before entering the study. All patients in the study were randomized into the GIK group (n = 14) or the control group (n = 12). Patients in the GIK group received high-dose GIK solution (25% glucose, 80 mmol/L KCl and 50 IU/L insulin; 1.5 ml/kg/h) over 24 h. Patients in the control group received standard therapy. We monitored the hemodynamic parameters at baseline and after 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h, respectively. Then, we followed-up the cardiac function with echocardiography after 7 days, 1 month and 6 months.
The basic clinical data was similar between the groups. Primary PCI was performed successfully in 25 patients. The two groups were indistinguishable in all factors measured. GIK solution did not have a deleterious effect on the hemodynamic parameters. The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure increased during the first 12-h period and then decreased smoothly (F = 3.75, P = 0.02). The trends were similar between the two groups. The system vascular resistance index (SVRI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) decreased during the first 12 h in the GIK group but increased in the control group. The GIK solution significantly influenced SVRI (F = 4.71, P = 0.02). GIK solution improved the cardiac function measured by stroke volume (F = 4.11, P = 0.03) and cardiac index (F = 4.40, P = 0.02). In the 6-month follow-up, GIK improved cardiac remodeling (left ventricular diastolic diameter: 49.2 ± 2.89 vs. 53.9 ± 2.48, P < 0.001; left ventricular systolic diameter: 32.9 ± 2.24 vs. 35.9 ± 2.78, P < 0.01).
High-dose GIK solution had no adverse effects on the hemodynamics in AMI patients treated with primary PCI. It can improve cardiac function by lowering SVRI. In the 6-month follow-up, it improved cardiac remodeling.