To introduce a comprehensive and reliable scoring system for the assessment of whole-knee joint synovitis based on contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI.
Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) is a cohort study of people with, or at high risk of, knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects are an unselected subset of MOST who volunteered for CE-MRI. Synovitis was assessed at 11 sites of the joint. Synovial thickness was scored semiquantitatively: grade 0 (<2 mm), grade 1 (2-4 mm) and grade 2 (>4 mm) at each site. Two musculoskeletal radiologists performed the readings and inter- and intrareader reliability was evaluated. Whole-knee synovitis was assessed by summing the scores from all sites. The association of Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index pain score with this summed score and with the maximum synovitis grade for each site was assessed.
400 subjects were included (mean age 58.8±7.0 years, body mass index 29.5±4.9 kg/m(2), 46% women). For individual sites, intrareader reliability (weighted κ) was 0.67-1.00 for reader 1 and 0.60-1.00 for reader 2. Inter-reader agreement (κ) was 0.67-0.92. For the summed synovitis scores, intrareader reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ( ICC)) was 0.98 and 0.96 for each reader and inter-reader agreement (ICC) was 0.94. Moderate to severe synovitis in the parapatellar subregion was associated with the higher maximum pain score (adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.8 (1.4 to 5.4) and 3.1 (1.2 to 7.9), respectively).
A comprehensive semiquantitative scoring system for the assessment of whole-knee synovitis is proposed. It is reliable and identifies knees with pain, and thus is a potentially powerful tool for synovitis assessment in epidemiological OA studies.
"The pathogenesis of joint inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) has consistently been conceptualised in relationship to articular cartilage damage with secondary synovitis1,2. The importance of synovitis in OA is underscored by the fact that its presence is associated with both pain and more rapidly progressive joint destruction3 as assessed by arthroscopy4, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)5–9 and C-reactive protein measurement10. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
This study explored posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) synovio-entheseal complex (SEC) microanatomy to determine whether it may participate in the early osteoarthritis (OA) disease process.
SEC microanatomy and OA features were evaluated in 14 non-arthritic cadaveric knees (mean age=69.9) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. MRI images of 49 subjects selected from the progression cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative were evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist using an original semi-quantitative method for features associated with OA at the PCL tibial enthesis. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to evaluate associations between SEC configuration and OA features.
The PCL formed a SEC-like structure encompassing bone- and ligament-lining intra-articular cartilages to which the posterior root of the medial meniscus contributed. Degenerative features at the PCL-SEC included: neovascularisation (44%), enthesis chondrocyte clustering (44%), collagen matrix fissuring at the enthesis (56%) and in the PCL itself (67%), tidemark duplication (44%), bone remodelling (44%) and microscopic inflammatory changes (33%). In the OAI cohort, SEC-related pathology included BMLs (69%) and osteophytosis (94%) at locations that corresponded to SEC-related cartilages. Posterior joint recess effusion (49%) was linked to MRI abnormalities at PCL-SEC cartilages (χ2 =7.27, p = 0.007).
The PCL has a prominent SEC configuration that is associated with microscopic OA changes in aged clinically non-diseased joints. MRI determined knee OA commonly exhibited pathological features at this site which was associated with adjacent joint effusion. Thus, the PCL-SEC could play a hitherto unappreciated role in the early OA disease process.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 09/2014; 22(9). DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2014.06.037 · 4.17 Impact Factor
"The PCL is a very strong ligament uncommonly affected by incidental or traumatic pathology  . Although synovitis around the ACL and PCL is often observed in OA, synovitis in these locations does not seem to be associated with knee pain . A recent study by Baker et al.  examined the relation of synovitis to "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Synovitis is thought to be a secondary phenomenon in the osteoarthritis (OA) process and the menisci might be triggers of localized synovitis. The aim was to assess the cross-sectional associations of posterior horn meniscal damage with perimeniscal synovitis, and with synovitis posterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) using contrast enhanced (CE) MRI.
The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a longitudinal observational study of subjects with or at risk for knee OA. Subjects are a subset of MOST who were examined with 1.5T CE MRI and had semiquantitative synovitis (scored from 0 to 2 at 11 locations) and meniscal readings (scored with WORMS from 0 to 4) available. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of posterior meniscal damage and perimeniscal synovitis in the same compartment, and between posterior meniscal damage and synovitis posterior to the PCL.
Three hundred and seventy seven knees were included (mean age 61.1 years±6.9, mean BMI 29.6±4.9, 44.3% women). The odds for ipsi-compartmental perimeniscal synovitis were increased for knees with medial posterior horn meniscal damage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.5, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.3,4.8), but not for lateral damage (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 0.4,6.6). No positive associations were found for meniscal damage and presence of synovitis posterior to the PCL (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.6,1.5).
Meniscal damage of the posterior horns is associated with ipsi-compartmental perimensical synovitis. No associations were found for posterior horn meniscal damage with synovitis posterior to the PCL, which suggests that synovitis posterior to the PCL is likely to be triggered by different pathomechanisms.
Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism 12/2012; 42(6). DOI:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2012.10.005 · 3.93 Impact Factor
"The most commonly used methods define synovitis according to the extent of synovial cavity distension or total synovial volume. These systems have been mostly applied to non-contrast imaging, but more recent studies have incorporated the use of contrast-enhanced MR imaging techniques to distinguish synovial thickening from effusion  . For example, in a recent study by Roemer et al. , the authors used both contrast-enhanced and non-enhanced images to examine a group of subjects with knee OA, and noted that synovitis was present in over 95% of the knee joints with an effusion, but also in 70% of knee joints in patients without an effusion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research into the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) has focused on cartilage and peri-articular bone, but there is increasing recognition that OA affects all of the joint tissues, including the synovium (SM). Under normal physiological conditions the synovial lining consists of a thin layer of cells with phenotypic features of macrophages and fibroblasts. These cells and the underlying vascularized connective tissue stroma form a complex structure that is an important source of synovial fluid (SF) components that are essential for normal cartilage and joint function. The histological changes observed in the SM in OA generally include features indicative of an inflammatory "synovitis"; specifically they encompass a range of abnormalities, such as synovial lining hyperplasia, infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes, neoangiogenesis and fibrosis. The pattern of synovial reaction varies with disease duration and associated metabolic and structural changes in other joint tissues. Imaging modalities including magnetic resonance (MRI) and ultrasound (US) have proved useful in detecting and quantifying synovial abnormalities, but individual studies have varied in their methods of evaluation. Despite these differences, most studies have concluded that the presence of synovitis in OA is associated with more severe pain and joint dysfunction. In addition, synovitis may be predictive of faster rates of cartilage loss in certain patient populations. Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of synovitis in OA. Available evidence suggests that the inflammatory process involves engagement of Toll-like receptors and activation of the complement cascade by degradation products of extracellular matrices of cartilage and other joint tissues. The ensuing synovial reaction can lead to synthesis and release of a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines. Some of these inflammatory mediators are detected in joint tissues and SF in OA and have catabolic effects on chondrocytes. These inflammatory mediators represent potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to reduce both symptoms and structural joint damage in OA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis".
Bone 02/2012; 51(2):249-57. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.02.012 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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