Characterization of the novel antibacterial peptide Leucrocin from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts.
ABSTRACT Four novel antibacterial peptides, Leucrocin I-IV from Siamese crocodile white blood cell extracts were purified by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Leucrocins exhibit strong antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. The peptides were 7-10 residues in length with different primary structure. The amino acid sequence of Leucrocin I is NGVQPKY with molecular mass around 806.99 Da and Leucrocin II is NAGSLLSGWG with molecular mass around 956.3 Da. Further, the interaction between peptides and bacterial membranes as part of their killing mechanism was studied by fluorescence and electron microscopy. The outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane was the target of action of Leucrocins as assayed in model membrane by release of β-galactosidase due to the membrane permeabilization. Finally, the hemolytic effect was tested against human red blood cell. Leucrocin I, III and IV showed less toxicity against human red blood cells than Leucrocin II.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heteroscorpine-1 (HS-1) was identified as a member of the scorpine family. HS-1 shows insecticidal activities, exhibiting a low median lethal dose (LD50) in mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) and inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, a recombinant HS-1 (rHS-1) was produced by overexpression in E. coli. A large yield of product was obtained. The structure of purified rHS-1 was confirmed through mass spectrometry. Both anti-crude venom and anti-rHS-1 antibodies specifically recognized rHS-1, suggesting its structural similarity. Reactivated rHS-1 caused roughening and blebbing of bacterial cell surfaces. It showed higher activity than that of pre-refolded protein. Antisera raised against a partially purified and mis- or unfolded peptide can inhibit relevant bioactivity.Biochemical Genetics 07/2014; · 0.82 Impact Factor
Article: Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development.Pharmaceuticals 06/2014; 7(6):723-753.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin was purified by a size exclusion chromatography, Sephacryl S-100 with buffer containing dithiothreitol. The purified Hb was dissociated to be two forms (α chain and β chain) which observed by SDS-PAGE, indicated that the C. siamensis Hb was an unpolymerized form. The unpolymerized Hb (composed of two α chains and two β chains) showed high oxygen affinity at 3.13 mmHg (P50) and 1.96 (n value), and a small Bohr effect (δH(+) = -0.29) at a pH of 6.9-8.4. Adenosine triphosphate did not affect the oxygenation properties, whereas bicarbonate ions strongly depressed oxygen affinity. Crude C. siamensis Hb solutions were showed high O2 affinity at P50 of 2.5 mmHg which may assure efficient utilization of the lung O2 reserve during breath holding and diving. The purified Hbs were changed to cyanmethemoglobin forms prior crystallization. Rod- and plate-shaped crystals were obtained by the sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method at 5 °C using equal volumes of protein solution (37 mg/ml) and reservoir [10-13 % (w/v) PEG 4000, with 0.1 M Tris buffer in present of 0.2 M MgCl2·6H2O] solution at a pH of 7.0-8.5.The Protein Journal 06/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor