Validity of the PAI interpersonal scales for measuring the dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex.
ABSTRACT Two studies evaluated the validity of the interpersonal scales, Dominance (DOM) and Warmth (WRM), from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) to measure the 2 dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC). In Study 1, 114 college freshmen completed the PAI and the Interpersonal Adjectives Scale (IAS; Wiggins, 1995). In Study 2, 170 college students completed the PAI and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-SC; Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995). The results of both studies supported the convergent validity of DOM and WRM, although discriminant validity was stronger using the IIP-SC as the criterion. Circumplex projections placed DOM and WRM in the appropriate segments of both the IAS and IIP-SC. These findings provide additional support for the validity of the PAI interpersonal scales as measures of the primary dimensions of the IPC.
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ABSTRACT: This field observation examines 58 police interrogators’ rapport-based behaviors with terrorist suspects; specifically, whether rapport helps elicit meaningful intelligence and information. The Observing Rapport-Based Interpersonal Techniques (ORBIT; Alison, Alison, Elntib & Noone, 2012) is a coding framework with 3 elements. The first 2 measures are as follows: (i) 5 strategies adopted from the motivational interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2009) literature in the counseling domain: autonomy, acceptance, adaptation, empathy, and evocation and (ii) an “Interpersonal Behavior Circle” (adopted from Interpersonal theories, Leary, 1957) for coding interpersonal interactions between interrogator and suspect along 2 orthogonal dimensions (authoritative-passive and challenging-cooperative); where each quadrant has an interpersonally adaptive and maladaptive variant. The third (outcome) measure of ORBIT includes a measure of evidentially useful information (the “interview yield”) and considers the extent to which suspects reveal information pertaining to capability, opportunity and motive as well as evidence relevant to people, actions, locations and times. Data included 418 video interviews (representing 288 hours of footage), with all suspects subsequently convicted for a variety of terrorist offenses. Structural equation modeling revealed that motivational interviewing was positively associated with adaptive interpersonal behavior from the suspect, which, in turn, increased interview yield. Conversely, even minimal expression of maladaptive interpersonal interrogator behavior increased maladaptive interviewee behavior as well as directly reducing yield. The study provides the first well-defined and empirically validated analysis of the benefits of a rapport-based, interpersonally skilled approach to interviewing terrorists in an operational field setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)Psychology Public Policy and Law 11/2013; 19(4):411-431. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression. The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%. The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.International Journal of Eating Disorders 01/2014; 2:20-29. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Principal component analysis of an operational field sample of 181 police interrogations with terrorist suspects identified five counter interrogation factors: passive (refusing to look at interviewers, remaining silent); passive verbal (monosyllabic response, claiming lack of memory); verbal (discussing an unrelated topic, providing well known information, providing a scripted response) with two single item components: retraction of previous statements and no comment. Analysis revealed significant differences in the use of counter interrogation tactics between terrorist groups, with paramilitary suspects using more passive, verbal and no comment tactics than right wing and international terrorists. International terrorists made significantly more use of retraction tactics than right wing and paramilitary groups.Personality and Individual Differences 10/2014; 68:170–175. · 1.86 Impact Factor