Proteolytic Activity Matrix Analysis (PrAMA) for simultaneous determination of multiple protease activities.

Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Integrative Biology (Impact Factor: 4). 12/2010; 3(4):422-38. DOI: 10.1039/c0ib00083c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are two related protease families that play key roles in matrix remodeling and growth factor ligand shedding. Directly ascertaining the proteolytic activities of particular MMPs and ADAMs in physiological environments in a non-invasive, real-time, multiplex manner remains a challenge. This work describes Proteolytic Activity Matrix Analysis (PrAMA), an integrated experimental measurement and mathematical analysis framework for simultaneously determining the activities of particular enzymes in complex mixtures of MMPs and ADAMs. The PrAMA method interprets dynamic signals from panels of moderately specific FRET-based polypeptide protease substrates to deduce a profile of specific MMP and ADAM proteolytic activities. Deconvolution of signals from complex mixtures of proteases is accomplished using prior data on individual MMP/ADAM cleavage signatures for the substrate panel measured with purified enzymes. We first validate PrAMA inference using a compendium of roughly 4000 measurements involving known mixtures of purified enzymes and substrates, and then demonstrate application to the live-cell response of wildtype, ADAM10-/-, and ADAM17-/- fibroblasts to phorbol ester and ionomycin stimulation. Results indicate PrAMA can distinguish closely related enzymes from each other with high accuracy, even in the presence of unknown background proteolytic activity. PrAMA offers a valuable tool for applications ranging from live-cell in vitro assays to high-throughput inhibitor screening with complex enzyme mixtures. Moreover, our approach may extend to other families of proteases, such as caspases and cathepsins, that also can lack highly-specific substrates.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secreted active proteases, from families of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases), participate in diverse pathological processes. To simultaneously measure multiple specific protease activities, a series of parallel enzyme reactions combined with a series of inhibitor analyses for proteolytic activity matrix analysis (PrAMA) are essential but limited due to the sample quantity requirements and the complexity of performing multiple reactions. To address these issues, we developed a pico-injector array to generate 72 different reactions in picoliter-volume droplets by controlling the sequence of combinational injections, which allowed simultaneous recording of a wide range of multiple enzyme reactions and measurement of inhibitor effects using small sample volumes (~10 μL). Multiple MMP activities were simultaneously determined by 9 different substrates and 2 inhibitors using injections from a pico-injector array. Due to the advantages of inhibitor analysis, the MMP/ADAM activities of MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, were characterized with high MMP-2, MMP-3 and ADAM-10 activity. This platform could be customized for a wide range of applications that also require multiple reactions with inhibitor analysis to enhance the sensitivity by encapsulating different chemical sensors.
    Lab on a Chip 12/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1039/C4LC01162G · 5.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metastasis accounts for almost 90% of cancer-associated mortality. The effectiveness of cancer therapeutics is limited by the protective microenvironment of the metastatic niche and consequently these disseminated tumors remain incurable. Metastatic disease progression continues to be poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate model systems. To address this gap in understanding, we propose an all-human microphysiological system that facilitates the investigation of cancer behavior in the liver metastatic niche. This existing LiverChip is a 3D-system modeling the hepatic niche; it incorporates a full complement of human parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells and effectively recapitulates micrometastases. Moreover, this system allows real-time monitoring of micrometastasis and assessment of human-specific signaling. It is being utilized to further our understanding of the efficacy of chemotherapeutics by examining the activity of established and novel agents on micrometastases under conditions replicating diurnal variations in hormones, nutrients and mild inflammatory states using programmable microdispensers. These inputs affect the cues that govern tumor cell responses. Three critical signaling groups are targeted: the glucose/insulin responses, the stress hormone cortisol and the gut microbiome in relation to inflammatory cues. Currently, the system sustains functioning hepatocytes for a minimum of 15 days; confirmed by monitoring hepatic function (urea, α-1-antitrypsin, fibrinogen, and cytochrome P450) and injury (AST and ALT). Breast cancer cell lines effectively integrate into the hepatic niche without detectable disruption to tissue, and preliminary evidence suggests growth attenuation amongst a subpopulation of breast cancer cells. xMAP technology combined with systems biology modeling are also employed to evaluate cellular crosstalk and illustrate communication networks in the early microenvironment of micrometastases. This model is anticipated to identify new therapeutic strategies for metastasis by elucidating the paracrine effects between the hepatic and metastatic cells, while concurrently evaluating agent efficacy for metastasis, metabolism and tolerability.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 05/2014; 239(9). DOI:10.1177/1535370214532596 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electrokinetic preconcentration coupled with mobility shift assays can give rise to very high detection sensitivities. We describe a microfluidic device that utilizes this principle to detect cellular kinase activities by simultaneously concentrating and separating substrate peptides with different phosphorylation states. This platform is capable of reliably measuring kinase activities of single adherent cells cultured in nanoliter volume microwells. We also describe a novel method utilizing spacer peptides that significantly increase separation resolution while maintaining high concentration factors in this device. Thus, multiplexed kinase measurements can be implemented with single cell sensitivity. Multiple kinase activity profiling from single cells could potentially allow us to study heterogeneous activation of signaling pathways that can lead to multiple cell fates.
    Analytical Chemistry 07/2014; 86(15). DOI:10.1021/ac502185v · 5.83 Impact Factor


Available from