Contribution of CNS cells in NeuroAIDS
ABSTRACT NeuroAIDS is becoming a major health problem among AIDS patients and long-term HIV survivors. As per 2009 estimates of UNAIDS report, more than 34 million people have been infected with HIV out of which ≥ 50% show signs and symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. These disorders affect central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). CNS is one of the most protected organ systems in body which is protected by blood-brain barrier (BBB). Not only this, most of the cells of CNS are negative for receptors and co-receptors for HIV infections. Neurons have been found to be completely nonpermissive for HIV infection. These facts suggest that neurotoxicity could be an indirect mechanism responsible for neuropsychiatric complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of different cell types of CNS and their contribution toward neurotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Astrocytes play an important role in maintaining an optically suited milieu for neuronal functionality, and are involved in the progression and outcome of many neuropathological conditions. It becomes increasingly evident that astrocytes are significant contributors to HIV-1 associated neurological disorders by modulating the microenvironment in the central nervous system and releasing proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have revealed direct metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes observed particularly in HIV-1-associated neurological disorders by which astrocytic dysfunctions disregulate extracellular K+ homeostasis, intracellular calcium concentration, glutamate clearance, and blood brain barrier integrity and permeability. Such dysfunctions are amplified via gap junctions, directly or indirectly impacting surrounding neurons and significantly contributing to the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. In this review, we tentatively address recent progresses on the roles astrocytes may play in HIV-1-associated neurotoxicity.Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 11/2013; 4(11):255. DOI:10.4172/2155-6113.1000255 · 6.83 Impact Factor
Current Perspectives in HIV Infection, 04/2013: chapter NeuroAIDS: Mechanisms, Causes, Prevalence, Diagnostics and Social Issues: pages 109-124; InTech.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to verify whether HIV activates two endogenous retroviruses of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-W family, MSRV and Syncytin-1, whose neuropathogenic and immunopathogenic properties could contribute to HIV-related neurodegeneration.AIDS (London, England) 09/2014; DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000477 · 6.56 Impact Factor