The use of gabapentin enacarbil in the treatment of restless legs syndrome.

Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders 09/2010; 3(5):269-75. DOI: 10.1177/1756285610378059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep-related neurological disorder that is characterized by the urge to move, worsening at rest, improvement with activity, and worsening in the evening and night. Dopamine agonists are usually the first-line therapy. Other agents including benzodiazepines, narcotics, and anticonvulsants have been used to treat RLS. Gabapentin has been shown to improve RLS in a small number of clinical studies, but is limited by its short half-life and variable bioavailability. Gabapentin enacarbil is a novel prodrug of gabapentin designed to overcome these pharmacokinetic limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that gabapentin enacarbil has improved absorption, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics compared with gabapentin. Phase II and III studies have demonstrated that gabapentin enacarbil is generally well tolerated and is useful in the treatment of RLS.

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    ABSTRACT: Academic Editor: Birgit Frauscher Copyright © 2012 Todd J. Swick. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly being recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad nonmotor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS), nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), are estimated to occur in 60% to 98% of patients with PD. For years nonmotor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers, but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity in determining quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques, and treatment options for the sleep disorders that are encountered with PD is presented.
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    ABSTRACT: Oral gabapentin enacarbil is approved in adult patients for the treatment of moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS) [featured indication] and the management of postherpetic neuralgia. In the 12-week Patient Improvements in Vital Outcomes following Treatment (PIVOT) RLS I and II trials in adult patients with moderate to severe primary RLS (n > 500 total evaluable), once-daily gabapentin enacarbil 600 or 1,200 mg significantly improved mean International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) total scores compared with placebo, with significantly higher investigator-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) responder rates in gabapentin enacarbil groups than in placebo groups. Improvements in other sleep outcomes (assessed using various scales) also generally favoured gabapentin enacarbil treatment. These data are supported by results from a polysomnography, crossover (two 4-week treatment periods) trial (n > 100 evaluable). Improvements in RLS symptoms with gabapentin enacarbil were maintained in a 52-week extension study of clinical trials, including PIVOT RLS I and II. The longer-term efficacy of gabapentin enacarbil in patients with moderate to severe RLS was also demonstrated in the 36-week PIVOT RLS Maintenance study and a 52-week noncomparative study conducted in Japan. Gabapentin enacarbil was generally well tolerated in adult patients with RLS participating in short- and longer-term clinical trials. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were somnolence/sedation and dizziness. Most adverse events were of mild to moderate severity, with relatively few patients discontinuing treatment because of an adverse event.
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