Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Transmission in Preweaned Dairy Cattle in Henan, China

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, People's Republic of China.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 12/2010; 49(3):1077-82. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02194-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in preweaned calves in China, 801 fecal samples from eight farms in seven areas in Henan Province were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 21.5%, with the farm in Xinxiang having the highest prevalence (40%). No significant difference in infection rates was observed between seasons. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. The SSU rRNA-based PCR identified four Cryptosporidium species, including Cryptosporidium parvum (54/172), C. bovis (65/172), C. ryanae (19/172), and C. andersoni (12/172), and the occurrence of infections with mixed species (22/172). The earliest detection of C. bovis was in calves of 1 week of age, showing that the prepatent period was shorter than the previously stated 10 to 12 days. Infections with C. parvum peaked in summer, whereas C. bovis dominated in autumn and winter. There was no apparent difference in the age of cattle infected with either C. parvum or C. bovis. Sequencing analysis of the gp60 gene showed all 67 C. parvum samples belonged to subtype IIdA19G1. These findings suggested that the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned calves in Henan, China, appeared to be different from other areas both at genotype and subtype levels. Further molecular epidemiologic studies (including samples from both calves and humans) are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics and public significance of C. parvum in cattle in China.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals worldwide. In China, bovine cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are of increasing concern because cattle are important reservoirs of these parasites, which have become potential threats to public health and to large numbers of cattle in recent years.ResultsA total of 1366 fecal samples from the Ningxia Autonomous Region were examined. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 1.61% and 2.12%, respectively. Cryptosporidium was only detected in preweaned calves and adults older than 2 years, whereas G. duodenalis was only detected in calves aged less than 11 months. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized with a PCR¿restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. parvum (n =15) and C. bovis (n =4) in preweaned calves, and C. andersoni (n =4) in adults aged over 2 years. A DNA sequence analysis of the gp60 gene suggested that the 15 C. parvum isolates all belonged to subtype IIdA15G1. Twenty-nine G. duodenalis isolates were analyzed by DNA sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Two G. duodenalis assemblages were identified, assemblages E (n =15) and B (n =4, one subtype B1 and three subtype B2) in preweaned calves, and assemblage E (n =10) in 3¿11-month-old calves.Conclusions The predominance of C. parvum detected in preweaned calves and the first identified subtype IIdA15G1 in dairy cattle, and the dominant G. duodenalis assemblage E in this study differed considerably from those found in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shannxi Provinces. Our findings further confirm the dominance of C. parvum IId subtypes in China.
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6·0% (14/232) and 8·2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cryptosporidium spp. are zoonotic parasites responsible for diarrhoeal diseases in animals and humans worldwide. Cattle are the most common mammalian species in which Cryptosporidium is detected, with pre-weaned calves considered to be reservoirs for zoonotic C. parvum. In October 2013, severe diarrhoea was observed in 396 pre-weaned calves at a farm in the Ningxia Autonomous Region of Northwestern China. 356 of the infected calves died despite antibiotic therapy. Findings 252 faecal samples were collected from the investigated farm. The identity of Cryptosporidium species was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. C. parvum was subtyped using sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. The highest infection rate of 83.3% (40/48) was seen in 2–3-week-old calves with diarrhoea, corresponding to the age at which animals died. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified, including C. parvum (n = 51), C. bovis (n = 1), and C. ryanae (n = 1). All C. parvum isolates were further identified as subtype IIdA15G1. Conclusions Cryptosporidium parvum was likely to be most responsible for diarrhoea and death. This is the first report of a cryptosporidiosis outbreak caused by C. parvum IIdA15G1 in Chinese dairy cattle.
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