Article

Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Transmission in Preweaned Dairy Cattle in Henan, China

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, People's Republic of China.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 12/2010; 49(3):1077-82. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02194-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in preweaned calves in China, 801 fecal samples from eight farms in seven areas in Henan Province were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 21.5%, with the farm in Xinxiang having the highest prevalence (40%). No significant difference in infection rates was observed between seasons. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. The SSU rRNA-based PCR identified four Cryptosporidium species, including Cryptosporidium parvum (54/172), C. bovis (65/172), C. ryanae (19/172), and C. andersoni (12/172), and the occurrence of infections with mixed species (22/172). The earliest detection of C. bovis was in calves of 1 week of age, showing that the prepatent period was shorter than the previously stated 10 to 12 days. Infections with C. parvum peaked in summer, whereas C. bovis dominated in autumn and winter. There was no apparent difference in the age of cattle infected with either C. parvum or C. bovis. Sequencing analysis of the gp60 gene showed all 67 C. parvum samples belonged to subtype IIdA19G1. These findings suggested that the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned calves in Henan, China, appeared to be different from other areas both at genotype and subtype levels. Further molecular epidemiologic studies (including samples from both calves and humans) are needed to elucidate the transmission dynamics and public significance of C. parvum in cattle in China.

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Available from: Rongjun Wang, Aug 19, 2015
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    • "In China, the most abundant species was C. bovis in preweaned calves in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shaanxi Provinces (Wang et al., 2011b; Zhang et al., 2013; Qi et al., 2015). However, C. parvum was the predominant species detected in preweaned calves in dairy cattle in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Northwestern China), and a cryptosporidiosis outbreak on a dairy farm in this area was caused by C. parvum (Cui et al., 2014; Huang et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 514 fecal samples were collected from dairy calves on 15 farms in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Northwestern China and were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 16.0% (82/514), and the infection rate was 15.6% (37/237) and 16.2% (45/277) in pre- and post-weaned calves, respectively. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence analyses of 82 positive fecal samples revealed the presence of four Cryptosporidium species; of these, 22 were Cryptosporidium parvum, 20 were Corynebacterium bovis, 9 were Cryptosporidium ryanae, 25 were Cryptosporidium andersoni, 2 were mixed C. bovis/C. parvum, and 4 were mixed C. bovis/C. ryanae infections. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was the most common species (22/37, 59.5%). In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (23/45, 51.1%) in post-weaned calves. Subtyping analysis based on the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene successfully identified 15 C. parvum isolates as being in the IId family; 11 were IIdA15G1 and 4 were IIdA14G1. Recent findings describing the C. parvum IId subtypes as the dominant group in humans and animals in China indicate that dairy calves may be an important source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    • "Human subtypes, namely IIdA17G1 and IIdA18G1 have been isolated in a small number of cases in England (Chalmers et al. 2011), which differ from the 2 IId subtypes in this report. The IId family has been isolated from lambs, goats and cattle in Spain, China and Malaysia suggesting these animals as potential sources (Quilez et al. 2008a, b; Muhid et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2011). A third non-IIa strain, namely IIg identified in this study was first reported in Uganda (Akiyoshi et al. 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: There are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in developing countries. In this study, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequence analyses of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene were used to genotype Cryptosporidium specimens from 12 zebu cattle calves, 16 water buffalo calves, and four swamp deer (Cervus duvaucelii) collected from the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. All Cryptosporidium specimens from cattle and buffaloes belonged to Cryptosporidium ryanae, whereas those from deer belonged to Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Comparison of the SSU rRNA gene sequences obtained with those from earlier studies has identified a nucleotide substitution unique to all C. ryanae isolates from Nepal, in addition to some sequence heterogeneity among different copies of the gene. The finding of the dominance of a unique C. ryanae variant in both zebu cattle and water buffaloes in Nepal indicates that there is unique cryptosporidiosis transmission in bovine animals in the study area, and cross-species transmission of some Cryptosporidium spp. can occur between related animal species sharing the same habitats.
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