Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Transmission in Preweaned Dairy Cattle in Henan, China

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, People's Republic of China.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 12/2010; 49(3):1077-82. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02194-10
Source: PubMed


To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in preweaned calves in China, 801 fecal samples
from eight farms in seven areas in Henan Province were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 21.5%, with the farm in Xinxiang having the highest prevalence (40%). No significant difference in infection rates was
observed between seasons. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene
and DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. The SSU rRNA-based PCR identified four Cryptosporidium species, including Cryptosporidium parvum (54/172), C. bovis (65/172), C. ryanae (19/172), and C. andersoni (12/172), and the occurrence of infections with mixed species (22/172). The earliest detection of C. bovis was in calves of 1 week of age, showing that the prepatent period was shorter than the previously stated 10 to 12 days. Infections
with C. parvum peaked in summer, whereas C. bovis dominated in autumn and winter. There was no apparent difference in the age of cattle infected with either C. parvum or C. bovis. Sequencing analysis of the gp60 gene showed all 67 C. parvum samples belonged to subtype IIdA19G1. These findings suggested that the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. in preweaned calves in Henan, China, appeared to be different from other areas both at genotype and subtype levels.
Further molecular epidemiologic studies (including samples from both calves and humans) are needed to elucidate the transmission
dynamics and public significance of C. parvum in cattle in China.

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    • "In China, the most abundant species was C. bovis in preweaned calves in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shaanxi Provinces (Wang et al., 2011b; Zhang et al., 2013; Qi et al., 2015). However, C. parvum was the predominant species detected in preweaned calves in dairy cattle in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Northwestern China), and a cryptosporidiosis outbreak on a dairy farm in this area was caused by C. parvum (Cui et al., 2014; Huang et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 514 fecal samples were collected from dairy calves on 15 farms in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in Northwestern China and were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 16.0% (82/514), and the infection rate was 15.6% (37/237) and 16.2% (45/277) in pre- and post-weaned calves, respectively. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence analyses of 82 positive fecal samples revealed the presence of four Cryptosporidium species; of these, 22 were Cryptosporidium parvum, 20 were Corynebacterium bovis, 9 were Cryptosporidium ryanae, 25 were Cryptosporidium andersoni, 2 were mixed C. bovis/C. parvum, and 4 were mixed C. bovis/C. ryanae infections. In pre-weaned calves, C. parvum was the most common species (22/37, 59.5%). In contrast, C. andersoni was the dominant species (23/45, 51.1%) in post-weaned calves. Subtyping analysis based on the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene successfully identified 15 C. parvum isolates as being in the IId family; 11 were IIdA15G1 and 4 were IIdA14G1. Recent findings describing the C. parvum IId subtypes as the dominant group in humans and animals in China indicate that dairy calves may be an important source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2015; 212(3). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.07.002 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    • "Human subtypes, namely IIdA17G1 and IIdA18G1 have been isolated in a small number of cases in England (Chalmers et al. 2011), which differ from the 2 IId subtypes in this report. The IId family has been isolated from lambs, goats and cattle in Spain, China and Malaysia suggesting these animals as potential sources (Quilez et al. 2008a, b; Muhid et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2011). A third non-IIa strain, namely IIg identified in this study was first reported in Uganda (Akiyoshi et al. 2006 "
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is one of the most prevalent protozoan pathogens responsible for inducing human and animal disease worldwide. In this study, the glycoprotein-60 (gp60) subtyping tool was employed to assess the molecular diversity of C. parvum from human feces throughout Scotland during potential outbreaks. Over a 24-month period, microscopy analysis revealed 1139 positive feces containing Cryptosporidium species with 256 identified by molecular methods specifically as C. parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum was shown to be more prevalent in rural areas of Scotland and subtyping of 87 isolates demonstrated the predominant family as IIa, which occurred in 94% (n = 82) of isolates. The IIaA15G1R1 subtype was most common, being isolated from 47% (n = 41) of Scottish human cases. Non-IIa strains constituted a total of 5 isolates and included subtypes from the IIc, IId and IIg families. This information contributes significantly to existing knowledge and understanding of C. parvum subtypes in Scotland which is vital in assisting with the management of future local and national outbreaks.
    Parasitology 09/2014; 142(02):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S0031182014001346 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    • "z13 [7] and deer-like genotype [12] were not detected in white yaks in the present study, which may due to the small number of samples examined. C. parvum is one of the most important Cryptosporidium species, which has public health concerns [15], and it is a common species found in pre-weaned cattle in China and other countries [16-19]. Further studies will sample more white yaks in different seasons of the year to determine the dynamics and full profiles of Cryptosporidium infection in white yaks, to examine the infection status of the local Tibetans with Cryptosporidium, and to assess the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium from white yaks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cryptosporidium is an enteric apicomplexan parasite, which can infect yaks, leading to reduction of milk production and poor weight gain. White yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique yak breed inhabiting only in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwestern China. The objective of the present study was to molecularly determine Cryptosporidium infection and species in white yaks. Findings Seventy-six fecal samples from white yaks in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province were collected. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of each sample was amplified using nested PCR and sequenced. The Cryptosporidium species was determined by comparison of the obtained sequences with that of corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank by BLAST ( and phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood (ML) using PAUP*. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in white yak was 5.26% (4/76). Species identification showed C. andersoni in one sample (collected in September), and C. bovis in three samples (one collected in November and two collected in September). Conclusions The present investigation revealed the existence of Cryptosporidium infection in white yaks in China, for the first time, and two Cryptosporidium species, namely C. andersoni and C. bovis, were identified. These findings extend the host range for Cryptosporidium spp., and also provide base-line information for further studies of molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in the unique white yaks.
    Parasites & Vectors 05/2014; 7(1):230. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-7-230 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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