The structural and biochemical characterization of human RNase H2 complex reveals the molecular basis for substrate recognition and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome defects.
ABSTRACT RNase H2 cleaves RNA sequences that are part of RNA/DNA hybrids or that are incorporated into DNA, thus, preventing genomic instability and the accumulation of aberrant nucleic acid, which in humans induces Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a severe autoimmune disorder. The 3.1 Å crystal structure of human RNase H2 presented here allowed us to map the positions of all 29 mutations found in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome patients, several of which were not visible in the previously reported mouse RNase H2. We propose the possible effects of these mutations on the protein stability and function. Bacterial and eukaryotic RNases H2 differ in composition and substrate specificity. Bacterial RNases H2 are monomeric proteins and homologs of the eukaryotic RNases H2 catalytic subunit, which in addition possesses two accessory proteins. The eukaryotic RNase H2 heterotrimeric complex recognizes RNA/DNA hybrids and (5')RNA-DNA(3')/DNA junction hybrids as substrates with similar efficiency, whereas bacterial RNases H2 are highly specialized in the recognition of the (5')RNA-DNA(3') junction and very poorly cleave RNA/DNA hybrids in the presence of Mg(2+) ions. Using the crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima RNase H2-substrate complex, we modeled the human RNase H2-substrate complex and verified the model by mutational analysis. Our model indicates that the difference in substrate preference stems from the different position of the crucial tyrosine residue involved in substrate binding and recognition.
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ABSTRACT: Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan, causing the important zoonosis toxoplasmosis. This parasite utilizes a unique form of locomotion called gliding motility to find and invade host cells. The micronemal adhesin MIC2 plays critical roles in these processes by binding to substrates and host cell receptors using its extracellular adhesive domains. Although MIC2 is known to mediate important interactions between parasites and host cells during invasion, the specific host proteins interacting with MIC2 have not been clearly identified. In this study, we used a yeast-two-hybrid system to search for host proteins that interact with MIC2.Methods Different adhesive domains of MIC2 were cloned into the pGBKT7 vector and expressed in fusion with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain as baits. Expression of bait proteins in yeast cells was analyzed by immuno-blotting and their autoactivation was tested via comparison with the pGBKT7 empty vector, which expressed the GAL4 DNA binding-domain only. To identify host proteins interacting with MIC2, a mouse cDNA library cloned into a GAL4 activation-domain expressing vector was screened by yeast-two-hybrid using the integrin-like A domain of MIC2 (residues 74¿270) as bait. After initial screening and exclusion of false positive hits, positive preys were sequenced and analyzed using BLAST analysis and Gene Ontology Classifications.ResultsTwo host proteins that had not previously been reported to interact with T. gondii MIC2 were identified: they are LAMTOR1 (late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and mTOR activator 1) and RNaseH2B (ribonuclease H2 subunit B). Gene Ontology analysis indicated that these two proteins are associated with many cellular processes, such as lysosome maturation, signaling transduction, and RNA catabolism.Conclusion This study is the first one to report interactions between Toxoplasma gondii MIC2 and two host proteins, LAMTOR1 and RNaseH2B. The data will help us to gain a better understanding of the function of MIC2 and suggest that MIC2 may play roles in modulating host signal transduction and other biological processes in addition to binding host cells.Parasites & Vectors 11/2014; 7(1):543. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1400249986144212 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Innate immune sensing of nucleic acids provides resistance against viral infection and is important in the aetiology of autoimmune diseases. AGS (Aicardi-Goutières syndrome) is a monogenic autoinflammatory disorder mimicking in utero viral infection of the brain. Phenotypically and immunologically, it also exhibits similarities to SLE (systemic lupus erythaematosus). Three of the six genes identified to date encode components of the ribonuclease H2 complex. As all six encode enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism, it is thought that pathogenesis involves the accumulation of nucleic acids to stimulate an inappropriate innate immune response. Given that AGS is a monogenic disorder with a defined molecular basis, we use it as a model for common autoimmune disease to investigate cellular processes and molecular pathways responsible for nucleic-acid-mediated autoimmunity. These investigations have also provided fundamental insights into the biological roles of the RNase H2 endonuclease enzyme. In the present article, we describe how human RNase H2 and its role in AGS were first identified, and give an overview of subsequent structural, biochemical, cellular and developmental studies of this enzyme. These investigations have culminated in establishing this enzyme as a key genome-surveillance enzyme required for mammalian genome stability.Biochemical Society Transactions 08/2014; 42(4):717-25. DOI:10.1042/BST20140079 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aicardi–Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory encephalopathy caused by defective nucleic acids metabolism. Over 50% of AGS mutations affect RNase H2 the only enzyme able to remove single ribonucleotidemonophosphates (rNMPs) embedded in DNA. Ribonucleotide triphosphates (rNTPs) are incorporated into genomic DNA with relatively high frequency during normal replication making DNA more susceptible to strand breakage and mutations. Here we demonstrate that human cells depleted of RNase H2 show impaired cell cycle progression associated with chronic activation of post-replication repair (PRR) and genome instability. We identify a similar phenotype in cells derived from AGS patients, which indeed accumulate rNMPs in genomic DNA and exhibit markers of constitutive PRR and checkpoint activation. Our data indicate that in human cells RNase H2 plays a crucial role in correcting rNMPs misincorporation, preventing DNA damage. Such protective function is compromised in AGS patients and may be linked to unscheduled immune responses. These findings may be relevant to shed further light on the mechanisms involved in AGS pathogenesis.Human Molecular Genetics 09/2014; 24(3). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu485 · 6.68 Impact Factor