Use of MR Venography for Characterization of the Extracranial Venous System in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Subjects
ABSTRACT To investigate the differences in the extracranial venous system in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy control (HC) subjects by using magnetic resonance (MR) venography.
This HIPAA-compliant, prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board, and all participants gave informed consent. Fifty-seven patients, 41 (72%) with relapsing-remitting MS and 16 (28%) with secondary-progressive MS, and 21 HC subjects were imaged with a 3-T MR unit by using two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) and three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) sequences. In addition, six MS patients and six HC subjects underwent two sequential MR venographic examinations during 1 week to test image-reimage reproducibility. The morphologic features of internal jugular vein flow were classified as absent, pinpoint, flattened, crescentic, or ellipsoidal flow. Only absent and pinpoint flow were considered abnormal. The flow of the vertebral veins was classified as absent or present. The prominence of collateral neck veins and venous asymmetries between the left and right sides were assessed. Differences among groups were tested with a two-tailed Mann-Whitney two-sample rank-sum test.
No significant differences in morphologic features of flow in the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins were found between MS patients and HC subjects in any of the examined MR venographic parameters. No differences in asymmetry or prominence were found between MS patients and HC subjects. There was modest agreement (κ = 0.67) between 2D TOF and 3D TRICKS sequences. Image-reimage reproducibility showed modest agreement (κ = 0.66) for 2D TOF and low agreement for 3D TRICKS (κ = 0.33).
No significant differences in the extracranial venous systems between MS patients and HC subjects were detected by using MR venography. Standardized guidelines are needed to define parameters for the presence of venous anomalies.
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ABSTRACT: Under the auspices of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease (ISNVD), four expert panel committees were created from the ISNVD membership between 2011 and 2012 to determine and standardize noninvasive and invasive imaging protocols for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). The committees created working groups on color Doppler ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, catheter venography (CV), and intravascular US. Each group organized a workshop focused on its assigned imaging modality. Non-ISNVD members from other societies were invited to contribute to the various workshops. More than 60 neurology, radiology, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology experts participated in these workshops and contributed to the development of standardized noninvasive and invasive imaging protocols for the detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI. This ISNVD position statement presents the MR imaging and intravascular US protocols for the first time and describes refined color Doppler US and CV protocols. It also emphasizes the need for the use of for noninvasive and invasive multimodal imaging to diagnose adequately and monitor extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI for open-label or double-blinded, randomized, controlled studies.Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 09/2014; 25(11). DOI:10.1016/j.jvir.2014.07.024 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SummaryBackgroundThe purpose of this study was to compare patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy control subjects as regards hemodynamics of cerebral venous drainage.Material/MethodsBetween December 2012 and May 2013, 44 consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent the B-mode, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler evaluations of the internal jugular vein (IJV) and vertebral vein. The following four parameters were investigated: IJV stenosis, reversal of postural control of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, absence of detectable blood flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins, and reflux in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins in the sitting or supine position.ResultsIn the study group, IJV stenosis, postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, and absence of flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins were found in 3 (6.8%), 2 (4.5%), and 3 (6.8%) patients, respectively. In the control group, IJV stenosis (P=0.12), postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways (P=0.50), and absence of flow (P=0.12) were not detected. Abnormal reflux was found neither in multiple sclerosis patients nor in healthy subjects.ConclusionsNo significant difference in the cerebral venous drainage through the IJV or vertebral vein was found between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects within any of the investigated ultrasonographic parameters.Polish Journal of Radiology 09/2014; 79:323-7. DOI:10.12659/PJR.890690
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ABSTRACT: There is a relationship between cerebral vasculature and multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions: abnormal accumulations of iron have been found in the walls of dilated veins in MS plaques. The sources of this iron can be varied, but capillary and venous hemorrhages leading to blood extravasation have been recorded, and could result in the release of hemoglobin extracellularly. Extracellular hemoglobin oxidizes quickly and is known to become a reactive molecule that triggers low-density lipoprotein oxidation and plays a pivotal role in atherogenesis. In MS, it could lead to local oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue damage. Here, we investigated whether extracellular hemoglobin and its breakdown products can cause direct oxidative damage to myelin components in a peroxidative environment such as occurs in inflamed tissue. Oxidation of lipids was assessed by the formation of fluorescent peroxidized lipid-protein covalent adducts, by the increase in conjugated diene and malondialdehyde. Oxidation of proteins was analyzed by the change in protein mass. The results suggest that the globin radical could be a trigger of myelin basic protein oxidative cross-linking, and that heme transferred to the lipids is involved in lipid peroxidation. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which hemoglobin exerts its pathological oxidative activity towards myelin components. This work supports further research into the vascular pathology in MS, to gain insight into the origin and role of iron deposits in disease pathogenesis, or in stimulation of different comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 10/2014; In Press(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.10.009 · 5.09 Impact Factor