Article

Male infertility and depression: a neglected problem in the Middle East.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences-Urology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Sexual Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.51). 12/2010; 8(3):824-30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02155.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to the psychological status of infertile men from developing countries who have been traditionally stigmatized as feeble and ineffective.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of depression and its socio-demographic correlates in a sample of Iranian infertile men.
One hundred and fourteen infertile men filled out the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. Men who scored ≥ 17 were considered depressed and those with the score ≤ 16 were assumed to be nondepressed.
(i) Comparison between depressed and non-depressed men regarding age, education level, economic status, ethnicity, age at time of marriage, duration, and type of infertility and regular cigarette smoking. (ii) Independent risk factors for depression.
The mean age of participants was 34.1 ± 7.1 years. The diagnosis of depression was made in 42.9% of infertile men. Current age, age at marriage, economic status, and type of infertility were not statistically different between two groups (P > 0.05). Statistically significant association was detected between depression symptoms and education (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.008), and duration of infertility (P < 0.03). In an adjusted multiple regression model, education (odds ratio [OR] 0.2; confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.5, P < 0.003), ethnicity (OR 4.5; CI 1.5-13.3, P < 0.006), and cigarette smoking (OR 5.1; CI 1.4-18.5, P < 0.01) retained their significance, while duration of infertility lost its power.
Depression among Iranian infertile men is remarkably higher in comparison with Western countries. Azaris, cigarette smokers, and individuals with low educational level are at higher risk of developing depression among infertile men.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
82 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Infertility is a complex crisis of life and increases psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression. Identification of copy strategies for stressful events like infertility is important. The aim of our study was to investi-gate the relationship between coping strategies with anxiety and depression symptoms in men and women's infertile. Methods: This descrip-tive-analytic study was conducted from 2011-2012 on 168 Iranian infertile couples referred to the Fatemeh Zahra infertility and reproductive health research center of Babol university of me-dical science to initiate assistant reproductive technologies and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), The State-Trait Anxiety In-ventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The results were analyzed using t-test, the Pearson correlation and the stepwise model of multiple regression analysis. P < 0.05 was con-sidered for level of significant. Results: Escape/ avoidance contributed the greatest amount of unique variance to the model for anxiety/de-pression of infertile women (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001) and followed by distancing (P < 0.0001, P < 0.01), accepting responsibility(P < 0.0001, P < 0.01). Seeking social support was the negative significantly predictor for both anxiety and de-pression in infertile women (P < 0.01, P < 0.01), but planful problem solving was the inversely predictor for only depression in infertile women (P < 0.01). Escape/avoidance was the only pre-dictor factor of the model anxiety for infertile men (P < 0.01). Escape/avoidance and self con-trolling were the positive predictor (P < 0.001) and planful problem solving was the negative predictor for men depression (P < 0.05). Con-clusion: men and women infertile who use dis-proportionally maladaptive coping strategies such as escape/avoidance are predisposed to anxiety and depression symptoms. How using the cop-ing strategies is very important in expressing anxiety and depression in infertile couples and training the adaptive coping strategies suggested by counseling centers.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine the level and socio-demographic correlates of psychological distress among males with infertility.Subjects and methodsThis cross-sectional descriptive study involving males with infertility was carried out at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria between June and December 2011. The respondents were initially evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and a sheet designed for the collection of socio-demographic data. Patients who scored above the cut-off points of HADS were further interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI) depression and anxiety module. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 15. All tests of significance were carried out at a 5% level of probability.ResultsA total of 81 respondents with a mean age of 35.1 ± 6.7 years participated in the study. 56 (69.1%) had a formal education. The mean number of years of education was 8.5 ± 6.0. More than 50% of the respondents had received unorthodox treatment for infertility, and about 35% had a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (STI). 26 (32.1%) patients scored above the cut-off points of HADS. Psychological distress was found in 23 (28.4%), 14 (17.3%) patients were found to be depressed, while 9 (11.1%) had a generalized anxiety disorder. Psychological distress was significantly associated with a history of marital divorce (χ2 = 24.99, p = .001).Conclusion Male infertility is associated with psychological distress in Nigeria and the rate is comparable to that of other parts of the world.
    African Journal of Urology 12/2012; 18(4):170–174.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Infertility is a complex crisis of life and increases psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression. Identification of copy strategies for stressful events like infertility is important. The aim of our study was to investi-gate the relationship between coping strategies with anxiety and depression symptoms in men and women's infertile. Methods: This descrip-tive-analytic study was conducted from 2011-2012 on 168 Iranian infertile couples referred to the Fatemeh Zahra infertility and reproductive health research center of Babol university of me-dical science to initiate assistant reproductive technologies and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), The State-Trait Anxiety In-ventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The results were analyzed using t-test, the Pearson correlation and the stepwise model of multiple regression analysis. P < 0.05 was con-sidered for level of significant. Results: Escape/ avoidance contributed the greatest amount of unique variance to the model for anxiety/de-pression of infertile women (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001) and followed by distancing (P < 0.0001, P < 0.01), accepting responsibility(P < 0.0001, P < 0.01). Seeking social support was the negative significantly predictor for both anxiety and de-pression in infertile women (P < 0.01, P < 0.01), but planful problem solving was the inversely predictor for only depression in infertile women (P < 0.01). Escape/avoidance was the only pre-dictor factor of the model anxiety for infertile men (P < 0.01). Escape/avoidance and self con-trolling were the positive predictor (P < 0.001) and planful problem solving was the negative predictor for men depression (P < 0.05). Con-clusion: men and women infertile who use dis-proportionally maladaptive coping strategies such as escape/avoidance are predisposed to anxiety and depression symptoms. How using the cop-ing strategies is very important in expressing anxiety and depression in infertile couples and training the adaptive coping strategies suggested by counseling centers.