Male infertility and depression: a neglected problem in the Middle East.
ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to the psychological status of infertile men from developing countries who have been traditionally stigmatized as feeble and ineffective.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of depression and its socio-demographic correlates in a sample of Iranian infertile men.
One hundred and fourteen infertile men filled out the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. Men who scored ≥ 17 were considered depressed and those with the score ≤ 16 were assumed to be nondepressed.
(i) Comparison between depressed and non-depressed men regarding age, education level, economic status, ethnicity, age at time of marriage, duration, and type of infertility and regular cigarette smoking. (ii) Independent risk factors for depression.
The mean age of participants was 34.1 ± 7.1 years. The diagnosis of depression was made in 42.9% of infertile men. Current age, age at marriage, economic status, and type of infertility were not statistically different between two groups (P > 0.05). Statistically significant association was detected between depression symptoms and education (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.008), and duration of infertility (P < 0.03). In an adjusted multiple regression model, education (odds ratio [OR] 0.2; confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.5, P < 0.003), ethnicity (OR 4.5; CI 1.5-13.3, P < 0.006), and cigarette smoking (OR 5.1; CI 1.4-18.5, P < 0.01) retained their significance, while duration of infertility lost its power.
Depression among Iranian infertile men is remarkably higher in comparison with Western countries. Azaris, cigarette smokers, and individuals with low educational level are at higher risk of developing depression among infertile men.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the prevalence of depression among infertile couples. However, there is a remarkable diversity among the results. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate an overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran. International and national electronic databases were searched up to June 2011 including MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. Furthermore, reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional references. Cross-sectional studies addressing the prevalence of depression among infertile couples were included in this meta-analysis. We assessed 12 separate studies involving overall 2818 participants of which 1251 had depression. Overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.55). The prevalence rate of depression was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.56) during 2000 to 2005 and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.57 during 2006 to 2011. The prevalence rate of depression was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.53) among women and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.54) among men. Not only the prevalence of depression in infertile couples was high but also had increasing growth in recent years. Furthermore, despite many studies conducted addressing the prevalence of depression in infertile couples, there is however a remarkable diversity between the results. Thus, one can hardly give a precise estimation of the prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran now.Iranian Journal of Public Health 01/2013; 42(5):458-466. · 0.41 Impact Factor