Male infertility and depression: a neglected problem in the Middle East.
ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to the psychological status of infertile men from developing countries who have been traditionally stigmatized as feeble and ineffective.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of depression and its socio-demographic correlates in a sample of Iranian infertile men.
One hundred and fourteen infertile men filled out the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. Men who scored ≥ 17 were considered depressed and those with the score ≤ 16 were assumed to be nondepressed.
(i) Comparison between depressed and non-depressed men regarding age, education level, economic status, ethnicity, age at time of marriage, duration, and type of infertility and regular cigarette smoking. (ii) Independent risk factors for depression.
The mean age of participants was 34.1 ± 7.1 years. The diagnosis of depression was made in 42.9% of infertile men. Current age, age at marriage, economic status, and type of infertility were not statistically different between two groups (P > 0.05). Statistically significant association was detected between depression symptoms and education (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.008), and duration of infertility (P < 0.03). In an adjusted multiple regression model, education (odds ratio [OR] 0.2; confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.5, P < 0.003), ethnicity (OR 4.5; CI 1.5-13.3, P < 0.006), and cigarette smoking (OR 5.1; CI 1.4-18.5, P < 0.01) retained their significance, while duration of infertility lost its power.
Depression among Iranian infertile men is remarkably higher in comparison with Western countries. Azaris, cigarette smokers, and individuals with low educational level are at higher risk of developing depression among infertile men.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess data published from 2000 to 2010 on the effect of infertility on the sexual function of men and women. Data Sources: The PubMed, Lilacs and Embase databases were searched for scientific articles assessing the sexual response of couples during infertility treatment. Study Selection: Studies selected for this review were published in English and conducted in human beings; articles included meta-analyses and cross-sectional or cohort studies that used objective measurement tools to quantitatively assess the data. Data Extraction: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Data Synthesis: Infertility is a major risk factor for sexual problems in both men and women. Conclusion: Infertile couples are at higher risk of sexual dysfunction than infertile couples. We also describe several recent patents.Recent Patents on Endocrine Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery 07/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the prevalence of depression among infertile couples. However, there is a remarkable diversity among the results. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate an overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran. International and national electronic databases were searched up to June 2011 including MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, SID, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. Furthermore, reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional references. Cross-sectional studies addressing the prevalence of depression among infertile couples were included in this meta-analysis. We assessed 12 separate studies involving overall 2818 participants of which 1251 had depression. Overall prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.55). The prevalence rate of depression was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.56) during 2000 to 2005 and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.57 during 2006 to 2011. The prevalence rate of depression was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.53) among women and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.54) among men. Not only the prevalence of depression in infertile couples was high but also had increasing growth in recent years. Furthermore, despite many studies conducted addressing the prevalence of depression in infertile couples, there is however a remarkable diversity between the results. Thus, one can hardly give a precise estimation of the prevalence rate of depression among infertile couples in Iran now.Iranian Journal of Public Health 01/2013; 42(5):458-466. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Infertility is a complex crisis of life and increases psychological difficulties such as anxiety and depression. Identification of copy strategies for stressful events like infertility is important. The aim of our study was to investi-gate the relationship between coping strategies with anxiety and depression symptoms in men and women's infertile. Methods: This descrip-tive-analytic study was conducted from 2011-2012 on 168 Iranian infertile couples referred to the Fatemeh Zahra infertility and reproductive health research center of Babol university of me-dical science to initiate assistant reproductive technologies and completed the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), The State-Trait Anxiety In-ventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The results were analyzed using t-test, the Pearson correlation and the stepwise model of multiple regression analysis. P < 0.05 was con-sidered for level of significant. Results: Escape/ avoidance contributed the greatest amount of unique variance to the model for anxiety/de-pression of infertile women (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001) and followed by distancing (P < 0.0001, P < 0.01), accepting responsibility(P < 0.0001, P < 0.01). Seeking social support was the negative significantly predictor for both anxiety and de-pression in infertile women (P < 0.01, P < 0.01), but planful problem solving was the inversely predictor for only depression in infertile women (P < 0.01). Escape/avoidance was the only pre-dictor factor of the model anxiety for infertile men (P < 0.01). Escape/avoidance and self con-trolling were the positive predictor (P < 0.001) and planful problem solving was the negative predictor for men depression (P < 0.05). Con-clusion: men and women infertile who use dis-proportionally maladaptive coping strategies such as escape/avoidance are predisposed to anxiety and depression symptoms. How using the cop-ing strategies is very important in expressing anxiety and depression in infertile couples and training the adaptive coping strategies suggested by counseling centers.