Nervous system tumors in adult immigrants to Sweden by subsite and histology
ABSTRACT The coding of histology of nervous system (NS) tumors with various degrees of malignancies differs between cancer registries, whereby the comparison of incidence rates from one registry to another seems difficult. No study has systematically defined whether the change in the risk of NS tumors upon immigration in adulthood varies by subsite or histology. Therefore, we aimed to address this issue amongst the first-generation immigrants to Sweden based on a large uniform cancer registry data (1958-2006).
The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database (2008 version; >11.8 million individuals; 1.8 million immigrants; histology code in force since 1958) was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We analyzed 28,981 adult cases of NS tumors amongst Swedes and 2519 amongst immigrants (age ≥ 30).
Significantly decreased risks for brain glioma were amongst German (SIR = 0.64), Eastern European (0.62), some Asian (0.71), Chilean (0.34), and African immigrants (0.52). We found an increased risk for brain meningioma amongst Finns (1.15) and former Yugoslavians (1.33), whilst only Norwegians (0.71) and Latin Americans (0.21) had a decreased risk. The risk for spinal ependymoma and astrocytoma was increased in Germans (3.66) and former Yugoslavians (8.89). We found no significant difference for peripheral nerve tumors between immigrants and the native Swedes.
Significant differences between risk of NS tumors amongst immigrants and the native Swedes may suggest different risk factor profiles for glioma compared to meningioma indicating a higher etiological role of genetic background or childhood environmental risk factors rather than exposures after immigration.
SourceAvailable from: Juan Leyva Moral[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Policy makers and health practitioners are in need of guidance to respond to the growing geographic mobility of Hispano-American migrants in Europe. Drawing from contributions from epidemiology, social sciences, demography, psychology, psychiatry and economy, this scoping review provides an up-to-date and comprehensive synthesis of studies addressing the health status and determinants of this population. We describe major research gaps and suggest specific avenues of further inquiry. We identified systematically papers that addressed the concepts "health" and "Hispano Americans" indexed in five data bases from Jan 1990 to May 2014 with no language restrictions. We screened the 4,464 citations retrieved against exclusion criteria and classified 193 selected references in 12 thematic folders with the aid of the reference management software ENDNOTE X6. After reviewing the full text of all papers we extracted relevant data systematically into a table template to facilitate the synthesising process. Most studies focused on a particular disease, leaving unexplored the interlinkages between different health conditions and how these relate to legislative, health services, environmental, occupational, and other health determinants. We elucidated some consistent results but there were many heterogeneous findings and several popular beliefs were not fully supported by empirical evidence. Few studies adopted a trans-national perspective and many consisted of cross-sectional descriptions that considered "Hispano-Americans" as a homogeneous category, limiting our analysis. Our results are also constrained by the availability and varying quality of studies reviewed. Burgeoning research has produced some consistent findings but there are huge gaps in knowledge. To prevent unhelpful generalisations we need a more holistic and nuanced understanding of how mobility, ethnicity, income, gender, legislative status, employment status, working conditions, neighbourhood characteristics and social status intersect with demographic variables and policy contexts to influence the health of the diverse Hispano-American populations present in Europe.BMC Public Health 05/2015; 15(1):472. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1799-x · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review aimed at covering cancer risk trends by site and histology in first-generation and second-generation immigrants in Sweden compared with natives. In addition, we reviewed data on cancer survival in immigrants to explore factors explaining cancer survival in the entire population. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios and hazard ratios (HRs) of death from cancer in 77 360 and 993 824 cases among first-generation, and 4356 and 263 485 cases among second-generation immigrants and Swedes, respectively. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratio. To obtain the maximum number of cases, we classified the immigrants according to geographical setting, population, and/or cancer risk. Compared with native Swedes, the highest risk of cancer was observed for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Southeast Asian men (standardized incidence ratio=35.6) and women (24.6), for hypopharyngeal carcinoma in Indian men (5.4), for squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus in Iranian women (3.8), for cardia of the stomach in East Asian women (4.2), for signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach in Southeast Asian women (6.7), for the liver in East Asian men (6.8), for the gall bladder in Indian women (3.8), for the pancreas in North African men (2.2), for large cell carcinoma of the lung in former Yugoslavian men (4.2), for pleural mesothelioma in Turkish women (23.8), for the cervix in Danes (1.6), for seminoma in Chileans (2.1), for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder in Asian Arab men (2.3), for meningioma in former Yugoslavians (1.3), and for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in East and Southeast Asian men (3.6). No immigrant groups had an increased risk of breast, uterus, ovary, and prostate cancers or nervous system tumors. The HRs for all breast cancers were between 1.0 in low-risk Europeans and 1.2 in lowest-risk non-Europeans. Low-risk non-Europeans had an HR of 2.9 for lobular carcinoma. Low-risk non-Europeans were diagnosed in a higher T-class (odds ratio=1.9) than Swedes. The HRs for prostate cancer were 0.6 in Turks, Middle Easterners, Asians, and Chileans. In conclusion, environmental and behavioral factors, early-childhood exposures, and infections may play a major role in the risk of esophageal, stomach, liver, nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, malignant pleural mesothelioma, breast, gynecological, testicular, urinary bladder, and thyroid cancers. Pancreatic cancer and nervous system tumors may have a major genetic component in the etiology. The ethnic differences in the risk of breast cancer by histology had no major influence on survival. Middle Easterners, Asians, and Chileans, with the lowest risk of prostate cancer, also had the most favorable survival, suggesting a biological mechanism for this finding.European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000106 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The early cancer studies on immigrants, which started to appear some 50 years ago, showed that the incidence in cancers changes to the level of the new host country in one or two generations. These findings were fundamental to the understanding of the environmental etiology of human cancer. Many immigrant groups originate from countries with no cancer registration, and, hence, the immigrant studies may provide estimates on the indigenous cancer rates. The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been an important source of data for immigrant studies on various diseases. The Database covers the Swedish population of the past 100 years, and it records the country of birth for each subject. A total of 1.79 million individuals were foreign born, Finns and other Scandinavians being the largest immigrant groups. Over the course of years, some 30 publications have appeared relating to cancer in immigrants. In the present article, we will review more recent immigrant studies, mainly among Swedish immigrants, on all cancers and emphasize the differences between ethnic groups. In the second part, we discuss the problem of reliable registration of cancer and compare cancer incidence among non-European immigrants with cancer incidence in countries of origin, as these have now active cancer registries. We discuss the experiences in cancer registration in Morocco and Egypt. We show the usefulness and limitations in predicting cancer incidence in the countries of origin.The European Journal of Public Health 08/2014; 24(suppl 1):64-71. DOI:10.1093/eurpub/cku102 · 2.46 Impact Factor