[Prevalence of child and teenage obesity in schools in Dakar].
ABSTRACT Obesity is currently viewed as a serious worldwide public health issue. In this survey, we aim to determine its prevalence among schoolchildren and teenagers in Dakar. The sample of our survey consisted of 2,356 students aged 11-17, including 1,110 boys and 1,246 girls. For each of them, we have calculated their body mass index. Based on the higher value of the norm of that index, referred to the 97th percentile of Rolland-Cachera MF's curves, we have identified obese students according to their age and sex. The prevalence of obesity within our sample is 9.34%, with 2.88% for boys and 6.46% for girls. It is at its peak in the age of 11, though there is no significance (p > 0.05) in its decrease (from age 12 to 17). There are significantly (p < 0.05) more obese students in "catholic private" schools than in "public" schools where schooling is free. Child and teenage obesity is a reality in Dakar schools. Consequently, it is advisable to determine its nationwide prevalence to take on its prevention as well as its cure.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW+O) among Brazilian adolescents and to identify risks for subpopulations defined according to the five country macro-regions and situation (urban-rural) of the domiciles, income, years of school attendance, age and sex. A nationwide home-based survey representative of the Brazilian civilian noninstitutionalized population, performed in 1989. The sampling plans followed a stratified, multistage, probability cluster design in The National Research of Health and Nutrition sample, which collected anthropometric data of 14,455 domiciles. In all, 13,715 adolescents ranging from 10 to 19 y of age were studied. The OW+O was defined from a body mass index (BMI) equal or superior to the 85th percentile of the reference population of the NCHS. The prevalences in the different studied groups were compared using the adjusted odds ratio in logistic regression models. The prevalence of OW+O was of 7.7%, reaching 10.6% within the female group and 4.8% within the male group. A direct relation could be established between the socioeconomic level and OW+O. Adolescents of the most industrialized region of the country presented a risk of OW+O 1.86 (95% CI 1.51-2.30) times higher than that found in the least developed region. Male youngsters who lived in urban areas were more liable (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25) to overweight than their counterparts of rural areas. The occurrence of menarche increased two and a half times (OR=2.58, 95% CI 2.11-3.15) the risk of OW+O within the female group of adolescents. The results demonstrate a low prevalence of OW+O among Brazilian adolescents when compared with adolescents of more industrialized regions. The OW+O is twice as high within the female group, which represents a much greater difference than the one encountered in industrialized countries, probably owing to the muscular work carried out preponderantly by male adolescents of lower socioeconomic levels. Higher prevalences in subpopulations of higher socioeconomic level and of more industrialized regions show the great need for differentiated actions to control overweight and obesity in the country.International Journal of Obesity 08/2000; 24(7):869-74. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the determinants of overweight and obesity among 10- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in a population in the transitional phase in the North West Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was used to investigate weight status (anthropometric indicators) and determinants of overweight/obesity including dietary intake, physical activity and socio-economic status. A single, random sample (n=1257), stratified for gender, type of school and ethnic group, was used. Data were collected on demographics, family circumstances, habitual physical activity, dietary intake and anthropometry to evaluate weight status and body fat content. One-way analysis of variance, the generalised linear models procedure of SAS and the Tukey post hoc honest significant difference test were used to analyse the data. Few children were overweight or obese (7.8%) according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) standards (body mass index (BMI)-for-age). These standards were compared with other accepted standard values. Both Cole's IOTF/BMI-for-age standard and the sum of skinfold thicknesses standard classified normal-weight status similarly at a level of 92% (P<0.01) and were found to be useful in determining overweight/obesity. The prevalence rate was higher in females and white children, and was more apparent in urban areas, smaller households and children of parents with low- or high-income occupations. Boys and pre-menarcheal girls had mean body fat percentage in the normal/optimal range, whereas that of post-menarcheal girls was moderately high. Few variables showed a significant association with high body fat percentage: in boys, only the number of members in the household and physical activity levels over the weekend; in girls, only age. The overweight/obese boys mostly lived in smaller households, and the overweight/obese post-menarcheal girls were most inactive on both weekdays and weekends, and more overweight with increasing age. Smaller households, inactivity and increasing age for girls were found to be determinants that influence the development of overweight/obesity, while female gender and age post-menarche were identified as determinants of higher body fat content. For overweight/obesity prevention, the focus should be on pre-menarcheal girls, aged 10-13 years, using these determinants to identify overweight/obesity risk. Preventive programmes should aim to increase the physical activity of children to improve their current and future weight status.Public Health Nutrition 06/2006; 9(3):351-8. · 2.25 Impact Factor
- Obesity Reviews 06/2004; 5 Suppl 1:4-104. · 6.87 Impact Factor