Cyclophilin A is an inflammatory mediator that promotes atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.91). 01/2011; 208(1):53-66. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20101174
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cyclophilin A (CyPA; encoded by Ppia) is a ubiquitously expressed protein secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. CyPA stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression, and inflammatory cell chemotaxis. Given these activities, we hypothesized that CyPA would promote atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 16 wk developed more severe atherosclerosis compared with Apoe(-/-)Ppia(-/-) mice. Moreover, CyPA deficiency was associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein uptake, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) expression, apoptosis, and increased eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) expression. To understand the vascular role of CyPA in atherosclerosis development, bone marrow (BM) cell transplantation was performed. Atherosclerosis was greater in Apoe(-/-) mice compared with Apoe(-/-)Ppia(-/-) mice after reconstitution with CyPA(+/+) BM cells, indicating that vascular-derived CyPA plays a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerosis. These data define a role for CyPA in atherosclerosis and suggest CyPA as a target for cardiovascular therapies.

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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is secreted under inflammatory conditions by various cell types. Whereas the important role of intracellular CyPA for platelet function has been reported, the effect of extracellular CyPA on platelet function has not been investigated yet. Inhibition of extracellular CyPA through a novel specific inhibitor MM284 reduced thrombus after ferric chloride-induced injury in vivo. In vitro extracellular CyPA enhanced thrombus formation even in CyPA(-/-) platelets. Treatment of isolated platelets with recombinant CyPA resulted in platelet degranulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the platelet surface receptor extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (cluster of differentiation 147) by an anticluster of differentiation 147 monoclonal antibody significantly reduced CyPA-dependent platelet degranulation. Pretreatment of platelets with CyPA enhanced their recruitment to mouse carotid arteries after arterial injury, which could be inhibited by an anticluster of differentiation 147 monoclonal antibody (intravital microscopy). The role of extracellular CyPA in adhesion could be confirmed by infusing CyPA(-/-) platelets in CyPA(+/+) mice and by infusing CyPA(+/+) platelets in CyPA(-/-) mice. Stimulation of platelets with CyPA induced phosphorylation of Akt, which could in turn be inhibited in the presence of phosphoinositid-3-kinase inhibitors. Akt-1(-/-) platelets revealed a markedly decreased degranulation on CyPA stimulation. Finally, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was attenuated by MM284, as well as by inhibiting paracrine-secreted CyPA without directly affecting Ca(2+)-signaling. Extracellular CyPA activates platelets via cluster of differentiation 147-mediated phosphoinositid-3-kinase/Akt-signaling, leading to enhanced adhesion and thrombus formation independently of intracellular CyPA. Targeting extracellular CyPA via a specific inhibitor may be a promising strategy for platelet inhibition without affecting critical functions of intracellular CyPA. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
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    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2015; 235(1):1-15. DOI:10.1620/tjem.235.1 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) concentration increases in acute coronary syndrome. In an animal model of acute myocardial infarction, administration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) CyPA concentration and improved LV performance. This study investigated the relationships between changes in plasma CyPA concentrations and LV remodeling in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We enrolled 55 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI. Plasma CyPA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were measured at baseline and at one-month follow-up. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at one-, three-, and six-month follow-up. Patients with a decrease in baseline CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up (n = 28) had a significant increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (from 60.2 ± 11.5% to 64.6 ± 9.9%, p < 0. 001) and preserved LV synchrony at six months. Patients without a decrease in CyPA concentration at one month (n = 27) did not show improvement in LVEF and had a significantly increased systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) (from 1.170 ± 0.510% to 1.637 ± 1.299%, p = 0.042) at six months. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between one-month CyPA concentration and six-month LVEF. The one-month MMP-2 concentration was positively correlated with one-month CyPA concentration and LV SDI. Conclusions : Decreased CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up after STEMI was associated with better LVEF and SDI at six months. Changes in CyPA, therefore, may be a prognosticator of patient outcome.
    International journal of biological sciences 01/2015; 11(1):38-47. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.10271 · 4.37 Impact Factor

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