Genetic predisposition of white matter infarction with protein S deficiency and R355C mutation.
ABSTRACT The association between protein S deficiency (PSD) and ischemic stroke is controversial and warrants further investigation.
We conducted a genotype and MRI correlation study in a Chinese family in which hereditary PSD cosegregated with premature ischemic strokes. Six out of 11 family members inherited PSD type III in an autosomal dominant manner.
Among all PSD members, a novel missense mutation 1063C→T in exon 10 of protein S alpha (PROS1) was identified, which encoded a substitution of arginine to cysteine at position 355 (R355C) in the first globular domain of laminin A of protein S. Wild-type PROS1 sequences were retained in non-PSD members. MRI detected deep white matter infarctions predominantly distributed in the borderzone regions. The infarct topography was homogeneous in all adult mutant carriers. By contrast, cerebral infarction was absent in nonmutant carriers. Extensive investigation in the family did not reveal any confounding stroke risk. Haplotype analysis with high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers revealed a 6.1-Mb minimally rearranged region (rs12494685 to rs1598240) in 3q11.2, lod = 3.0. Among the 7 annotated genes in this region, PROS1 is known to be associated with thrombotic disorders. MRI screening in an additional 10 PSD families without R355C showed no cerebral infarction.
PROS1 R355C mutation cosegregated with PSD type III and premature white matter infarctions in the index family. The findings substantiate an association between PSD and stroke. Study of the mechanism underlying this association may improve our understanding of premature cryptogenic white matter infarction.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occlusive radiation vasculopathy (ORV) predisposes head-and-neck cancer survivors to ischemic strokes. METHODS: We analyzed the digital subtraction angiography acquired in 96 patients who had first-ever transient ischemic attack or ischemic strokes attributed to ORV. Another age-matched 115 patients who had no radiotherapy but symptomatic high-grade (>70%) carotid stenoses were enrolled as referent subjects. Digital subtraction angiography was performed within 2 months from stroke onset and delineated carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations from aortic arch up to intracranial branches. Two reviewers blinded to group assignment recorded all vascular lesions, collateral status, and infarct pattern. RESULTS: ORV patients had less atherosclerotic risk factors at presentation. In referent patients, high-grade stenoses were mostly focal at the proximal internal carotid artery. In contrast, high-grade ORV lesions diffusely involved the common carotid artery and internal carotid artery and were more frequently bilateral (54% versus 22%), tandem (23% versus 10%), associated with complete occlusion in one or both carotid arteries (30% versus 9%), vertebral artery (VA) steno-occlusions (28% versus 16%), and external carotid artery stenosis (19% versus 5%) (all P<0.05). With comparable rates of vascular anomaly, ORV patients showed more established collateral circulations through leptomeningeal arteries, anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery, suboccipital/costocervical artery, and retrograde flow in ophthalmic artery. In terms of infarct topography, the frequencies of cortical or subcortical watershed infarcts were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: ORV angiographic features and corresponding collaterals are distinct from atherosclerotic patterns at initial stroke presentation. Clinical decompensation, despite more extensive collateralization, may precipitate stroke in ORV.Stroke 01/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor