Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response.

Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 7.49). 03/2011; 36(2):87-113. DOI: 10.1503/jpn.100059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Personalized medicine - the adaptation of therapies based on an individual's genetic and molecular profile - is one of the most promising aspects of modern medicine. The identification of the relation between genotype and drug response, including both the therapeutic effect and side effect profile, is expected to deeply affect medical practice. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the genes related to antidepressant treatment response and provide methodologic proposals for future studies. We have mainly focused on genes associated with pharmacodynamics, for which a list of promising genes has been identified despite some inconsistency across studies. We have also synthesized the main results for pharmacokinetic genes, although so far they seem less relevant than those for pharmaco dynamic genes. We discuss possible reasons for these inconsistent findings and propose new study designs.

Download full-text


Available from: Stefano Porcelli, Feb 24, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the serotonin or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) and its gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) response modulators in late-life depression (LLD), and particularly in late-life major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies differed in design and results. Our study aimed to investigate the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter and serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) gene locus, encoding 5-HTT and SSRI treatment response in late-life MDD. For a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 234 patients with late-life MDD to be treated with escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine or citalopram for 6 months. The SLC6A4 polymorphisms rs4795541 (5-HTTLPR), rs140701 and rs3813034 genotypes spanning the SLC6A4 locus were investigated in blinded fashion. No placebo group was included. We assessed responder or non-responder phenotypes according to a reduction in the 21-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score of ⩾ 50%. At follow-up, 30% of the late-life MDD patients were non-responders to SSRI treatment. No time-course of symptoms and responses was made. A poor response was associated with a higher baseline HDRS-21 score. We observed a significant over-representation of the rs4795541-S allele in the responder patients (0.436 versus 0.321; p = 0.023). The single S-allele dose-additive effect had OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.12-2.69) in the additive regression model. Our findings suggested a possible influence of 5-HTTLPR on the SSRI response in patients with late-life MDD, which is potentially useful in identifying the subgroups of LLD patients whom need a different pharmacological approach. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 03/2015; 29(5). DOI:10.1177/0269881115578159 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked promoter region), cytochrome P450 2C19, and cytochrome P450 2D6 polymorphisms on escitalopram (ESC) and venlafaxine (VEN) responses in major depressive disorder. A prospective multi-site study of 106 patients (Caucasian and Han Chinese ethnicities) with major depressive disorder treated with either ESC or VEN was conducted. The 17-item Hamilton Depression scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impression Scale, and an adverse events scale (UKU) were assessed over 8 weeks, blind to genotype. At the 8-week end point, a significant HDRS reduction for both ESC and VEN occurred (p < 0.0001). The 5-HTTLPR l/l genotype was associated with significantly greater score reductions on the HDRS compared with s/s carriers (p = 0.016) among Caucasian subjects receiving ESC (n = 47). Response rates were significantly higher for l/l (92%) compared with l/s (61%) and s/s (46%) variants (p = 0.042). For every l allele a participant carried, there was a 3.33 (95% confidence interval 1.25, 8.84; p = 0.02) times greater odds of ESC response. No significant associations between any of the genotypes and adverse effects were found. Ethnicity may have differential effects on the 5-HTTLPR genotype-efficacy relationship. Results suggest that l/l allele for 5-HTTLPR is associated with a robust treatment response to ESC in Caucasian subjects only. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 09/2013; 28(5):516-22. DOI:10.1002/hup.2340 · 1.85 Impact Factor