Subarachnoid basal neurocysticercosis: a focus on the most severe form of the disease.
ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, Asia and Africa with growing occurrence in industrialized countries due to the increase in migration from low- and middle-income to high-income countries. The most severe clinical presentation is when the parasite is located in the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain (NCSAB). Aside from its clinical presentation, the severity of this form of the disease is due to the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Although NCSAB frequency is lower than that reported for the parenchymal location of the parasite, its clinical relevance must be emphasized. We provide a critical review of the central epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of this particular form of the disease, which is still associated with unacceptably high rates of morbidity and mortality.
Article: Neurocysticercosis: An Update[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic disease of the nervous system in humans and a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The presentation of the disease is dependent on both the immunological response of the host against the parasite as well as the location of the encysted organisms within the central nervous system (CNS). The principles of management utilized for intraparenchymal disease cannot be applied to extraparenchymal NCC. An advance in management of intraparenchymal NCC, the most common form encountered by physicians, is the use of both albendazole and praziquantel as a treatment strategy. Patients with subarachnoid NCC (SANCC) require months of treatment with both an antiparasitic agent and steroids to avoid complications such as hydrocephalus and vascular events during treatment. The determinants of successful treatment in SANCC have not been established, but response to therapy can be determined by evaluating several endpoints related to disease evolution including radiographic changes, serum antigen, and CSF antigen. Intraventricular NCC is primarily a surgical disease and data supports minimally invasive endoscopic removal of cysts in many of these patients. NCC is increasingly recognized in non-endemic countries due to increased immigration making it important for physicians to become familiar with the management of this disease.Current Infectious Disease Reports 11/2014; 16(11):437. DOI:10.1007/s11908-014-0437-6
Article: Neurocysticercosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurocysticercosis, the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs by contagion from an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Within the nervous system, parasites may locate in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing several pathological changes that are responsible for the clinical pleomorphism of the disease. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but a sizable proportion of patients develop focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Preoperative diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after proper integration of data from neuroimaging studies and immunological tests. Cysticidal drugs (albendazole and praziquantel) have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. The use of these drugs has shown to reduce the parasite load within the central nervous system and to improve the clinical prognosis of the disease in many cases. Future studies should focus on disease eradication through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment.10/2014; 4(4):205-12. DOI:10.1177/1941874414533351