Prevention of Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infection: Back to Basics?

Department of Acute Care Surgery, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Surgical Infections (Impact Factor: 1.72). 02/2011; 12(1):27-32. DOI: 10.1089/sur.2009.082
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are a substantial problem in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our infection control team initiated the routine use of antiseptic-coated (chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine; Chx-SS) CVCs in our adult ICUs to reduce catheter-associated (CA) and catheter-related (CR) blood stream infection (BSI) as we implemented other educational and best practice standardization strategies. Prior randomized studies documented that the use of Chx-SS catheters reduces microbial colonization of the catheter compared with an uncoated standard (Std) CVC but does not reduce CR-BSI. We therefore implemented the routine use of uncoated Std CVCs in our surgical ICU (SICU) and examined the impact of this change.
The use of uncoated Std CVCs does not increase CR-BSI rate in an SICU.
Prospective evaluation of universal use of uncoated Std CVCs, implemented November 2007 in the SICU. The incidences of CA-BSI and CR-BSI were compared during November 2006-October 2007 (universal use of Chx-SS CVCs) and November 2007-October 2008 (universal use of Std CVCs) by t-test. The definitions of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for CA-BSI and CR-BSI. Patient data were collected via a dedicated Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III coordinator for the SICU.
Annual use of CVCs increased significantly in the last six years, from 3,543 (2001) to 5,799 (2006) total days. The APACHE III scores on day 1 increased from a mean of 54.4 in 2004 to 55.6 in 2008 (p = 0.0010; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-5.13). The mean age of the patients was unchanged over this period, ranging from 58.2 to 59.6 years. The Chx-SS catheters were implemented in the SICU in 2002. Data regarding the specific incidence of CR-BSI were collected beginning at the end of 2005, with mandatory catheter tip cultures when CVCs were removed. Little difference was identified in the incidence of BSI between the interval with universal Chx-SS use and that with Std CVC use. (Total BSI 0.7 vs. 0.8 per 1,000 catheter days; CA-BSI 0.5 vs. 0.8 per 1,000 catheter days; CR-BSI 0.2 vs. 0 per 1,000 catheter days.) No difference was seen in the causative pathogens of CA-BSI or CR-BSI.
Eliminating the universal use of Chx-SS-coated CVCs in an SICU with a low background incidence of CR-BSIs did not result in an increase in the rate of CR-BSIs. This study documents the greater importance of adherence to standardization of the processes of care related to CVC placement than of coated CVC use in the reduction of CR-BSI.


Available from: Thomas John Papadimos, Dec 28, 2013
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The central venous catheter (CVC) is a commonly used device in managing acutely ill patients in the hospital. Bloodstream infections are major complications in patients who require a CVC. Several infection control measures have been developed to reduce bloodstream infections, one of which is CVC impregnated with various forms of antimicrobials (either with an antiseptic or with antibiotics). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effects of antimicrobial CVCs in reducing clinically diagnosed sepsis, established catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Anaesthesia Review Group (CARG). We searched MEDLINE (OVID SP) (1950 to March 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2012), EMBASE (1980 to March 2012), CINAHL (1982 to March 2012) and other Internet resources using a combination of keywords and MeSH headings. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials that assessed any type of impregnated catheter against either non-impregnated catheters or catheters with another impregnation. We excluded cross-over studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of the CARG. Two authors independently assessed the relevance and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using risk ratio (RR), absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number need to treat to benefit (NNTB) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data where appropriate with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). MAIN RESULTS: We included 56 studies with 16,512 catheters and 11 types of antimicrobial impregnations. The total number of participants enrolled was unclear as some studies did not provide this information. There were low or unclear risks of bias in the included studies, except for blinding, which was impossible in most studies due to different appearances between the catheters assessed. Overall, catheter impregnation significantly reduced CRBSI, with an ARR of 2% (95% CI 3% to 1%), RR of 0.61 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.73) and NNTB of 50. Catheter impregnation also reduced catheter colonization, with an ARR of 10% (95% CI 13% to 7%), RR of 0.66 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.75) and NNTB of 10. However, catheter impregnation made no significant difference to the rates of clinically diagnosed sepsis (RR 1.0 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.13)) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.05)).In our subgroup analyses, we found that the magnitudes of benefits for impregnated CVCs varied in studies that enrolled different types of participants. For the outcome of catheter colonization, catheter impregnation conferred significant benefit in studies conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.78)) but not in studies conducted in haematological and oncological units (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.11)) or studies that assessed predominantly patients who required CVCs for long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN)(RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34)). However, there was no such variation for the outcome of CRBSI. The magnitude of the effects was also not affected by the participants' baseline risks.There were no significant differences between the impregnated and non-impregnated groups in the rates of adverse effects, including thrombosis/thrombophlebitis, bleeding, erythema and/or tenderness at the insertion site. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review confirms the effectiveness of antimicrobial CVCs in improving such outcomes as CRBSI and catheter colonization. However, the magnitude of benefits in catheter colonization varied according to the setting, with significant benefits only in studies conducted in ICUs. Limited evidence suggests that antimicrobial CVCs do not appear to significantly reduce clinically diagnosed sepsis or mortality. Our findings call for caution in routinely recommending the use of antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs across all settings. Further randomized controlled trials assessing antimicrobial CVCs should include important clinical outcomes like the overall rates of sepsis and mortality.
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the impact of quality improvement interventions on central line-associated bloodstream infections in adult ICUs. Studies were identified through Medline and manual searches (1995-June 2012). Random-effects meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-regression assessed the impact of bundle/checklist interventions and high baseline rates on intervention effect. Forty-one before-after studies identified an infection rate decrease (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.33-0.46; p<0.001). This effect was more pronounced for trials implementing a bundle or checklist approach (p=0.03). Furthermore, meta-analysis of six interrupted time series studies revealed an infection rate reduction three months post-intervention (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.10-0.88; p=0.03). There was no difference in infection rates between studies with low or high baseline rates (p=0.18). These results suggest that quality improvement interventions contribute to the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections. Implementation of care bundles and checklists appears to yield stronger risk reductions.
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