Postprandial antioxidant effect of the Mediterranean diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 in elderly men and women. Age (Dord)

Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, IMIBIC/Reina Sofia University Hospital/University of Cordoba and CIBER Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain.
Age (Impact Factor: 3.45). 12/2011; 33(4):579-90. DOI: 10.1007/s11357-010-9199-8
Source: PubMed


Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. We have investigated whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial cellular oxidative stress and whether the supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ) lowers postprandial oxidative stress in an elderly population. In this randomized crossover study, 20 participants were assigned to receive three isocaloric diets for periods of 4 week each: (1) Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med+CoQ diet), (2) Mediterranean diet (Med diet), and (3) saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). After a 12-h fast, the volunteers consumed a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets. CoQ, lipid peroxides (LPO), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), protein carbonyl (PC), total nitrite, nitrotyrosine plasma levels, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and ischemic reactive hyperaemia (IRH) were determined. Med diet produced a lower postprandial GPx activity and a lower decrease in total nitrite level compared to the SFA diet. Med and Med+CoQ diets induced a higher postprandial increase in IRH and a lower postprandial LPO, oxLDL, and nitrotyrosine plasma levels than the SFA diet. Moreover, the Med+CoQ diet produced a lower postprandial decrease in total nitrite and a greater decrease in PC levels compared to the other two diets and lower SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the SFA diet.In conclusion, Med diet reduces postprandial oxidative stress by reducing processes of cellular oxidation and increases the action of the antioxidant system in elderly persons and the administration of CoQ further improves this redox balance.

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Available from: Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "A number of studies have been conducted to see if antioxidants might reduce free radicals and hence be protective of blood flow in the myocardium and other organs [5,6]. Because free radicals are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes [7–9], natural foods or vitamins might reduce the risk of these pathologies [7–9]. The ability of many different vitamins and additives to reduce free radicals in the blood has been investigated [10–12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The vascular endothelium is the interface between the blood and vascular smooth muscle in arteries. It is easily damaged by oxidative stress. Recent studies show that Asians are more susceptible than Caucasians to impairment of endothelial function. This study examined endothelial function in US-born Caucasians, Asians from Korea, and US-born Asians (almost all Korean decent) and examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on endothelial function. Material/Methods Twenty Caucasians and 30 Asians participated (<35 years old, males and females). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 44°C and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. In the US-born subjects, the experiments were repeated after 2-week administration of CoQ10 or a placebo. Results When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 44°C, the skin blood flows were significantly higher in Caucasians than both Asian groups Asians. Likewise after vascular occlusion, the blood flow response was greater in Caucasians compared to Asians. Asians born in Asia had the lowest response of the 3 groups of subjects. Administering CoQ10 for 2 weeks eliminated much of the difference between the groups, whereas there was no difference with a placebo. Conclusions These findings suggest that Asians either born in Asia or the US may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians. This may be explained, in part, by genetic variations causing increased oxidative stress from westernized diets in Asians. Co enzyme Q10 administration narrows the difference between the groups.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The existing defense mechanisms in cells from the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species can be divided into enzymatic and nonenzymatic. Coenzyme Q10 is one of the non‑enzymatic antioxidants, supporting the activities of the enzyme. Aim. To evaluate the erythrocytes antioxidant defense of healthy people taking Coenzyme Q10. Material & method. The study involved 33 healthy people aged 25‑40 years. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group received 30 mg/day of CoQ10, the second – 60 mg/day. Both groups took CoQ10 for 4 weeks. The activity of superoxide dismutase (by the Misra and Fridowitch method), catalase (Beers and Sizer method) and glutathione peroxidase (Little and O’Brien method) was determined in red blood cells of blood samples collected before and after supplementation. Results. A 4‑week supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in healthy subjects at a dose of 30 mg and 60 mg/day increased the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, but did not affect the activity of superoxide dismutase. Conclusions. Supplementation of coenzyme Q10 in healthy subjects caused significant changes in the antioxidant defense enzymes activities, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase, causing an increase in the activity of these enzymes. However, it did not produce a statistically significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase. The observed changes showed a dose‑dependent differences in CoQ10 intake, resulting in greater differences in activities of enzymes in patients taking the lower dose.
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    ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is a powerful antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. We explored whether the quality of dietary fat alters postprandial oxidative DNA damage and whether supplementation with CoQ improves antioxidant capacity by modifying the activation/stabilization of p53 in elderly subjects. In this crossover study, 20 subjects were randomly assigned to receive three isocaloric diets during 4 weeks each: (1) Mediterranean diet (Med diet), (2) Mediterranean diet supplemented with CoQ (Med+CoQ diet), and (3) saturated fatty acid-rich diet (SFA diet). Levels of mRNAs were determined for p53, p21, p53R2, and mdm2. Protein levels of p53, phosphorylated p53 (Ser20), and monoubiquitinated p53 were also measured, both in cytoplasm and nucleus. The extent of DNA damage was measured as plasma 8-OHdG. SFA diet displayed higher postprandial 8-OHdG concentrations, p53 mRNA and monoubiquitinated p53, and lower postprandial Mdm2 mRNA levels compared with Med and Med+CoQ diets (p < 0.05). Moreover, Med+CoQ diet induced a postprandial decrease of cytoplasmatic p53, nuclear p-p53 (Ser20), and nuclear and cytoplasmatic monoubiquitinated p53 protein (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Med+CoQ diet improves oxidative DNA damage in elderly subjects and reduces processes of cellular oxidation. Our results suggest a starting point for the prevention of oxidative processes associated with aging.
    Age 03/2011; 34(2):389-403. DOI:10.1007/s11357-011-9229-1 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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