Depression and HIV in Botswana: a population-based study on gender-specific socioeconomic and behavioral correlates.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2010; 5(12):e14252. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014252
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Depression is a leading contributor to the burden of disease worldwide, a critical barrier to HIV prevention and a common serious HIV co-morbidity. However, depression screening and treatment are limited in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are few population-level studies examining the prevalence and gender-specific factors associated with depression.
We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of 18-49 year-old adults from five districts in Botswana with the highest prevalence of HIV-infection. We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms, using a Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression (HSCL-D) score of ≥ 1.75 to define depression, and correlates of depression using multivariate logistic regression stratified by sex.
Of 1,268 participants surveyed, 25.3% of women and 31.4% of men had depression. Among women, lower education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.07, 95% confidence interval [1.30-3.32]), higher income (1.77 [1.09-2.86]), and lack of control in sexual decision-making (2.35 [1.46-3.81]) were positively associated with depression. Among men, being single (1.95 [1.02-3.74]), living in a rural area (1.63 [1.02-2.65]), having frequent visits to a health provider (3.29 [1.88-5.74]), anticipated HIV stigma (fearing discrimination if HIV status was revealed) (2.04 [1.27-3.29]), and intergenerational sex (2.28 [1.17-4.41]) were independently associated with depression.
Depression is highly prevalent in Botswana, and its correlates are gender-specific. Our findings suggest multiple targets for screening and prevention of depression and highlight the need to integrate mental health counseling and treatment into primary health care to decrease morbidity and improve HIV management efforts.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/ AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Design: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cutoff score ]19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results: The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS ]19). Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR06.87, 95% CI 2.27Á20.81), low social support (OR 010.17, 95% CI 2.85Á36.29), number of negative life events of six and above (OR03.99, 95% CI 1.77Á8.99), not disclosing HIV status (OR 05.24, 95% CI 1.33Á20.62), and CD4 cell count of B200 cells/mm 3 (OR01.98, 95% CI 0.45Á0.83) and 200Á499 cells/mm 3 (OR03.53, 95% CI 1.62Á7.73). Conclusions: This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health services with HIV/AIDS care and support program.
    Global Health Action 05/2014; 7. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is a remarkable dearth of evidence on mental illness in adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, particularly in the African setting. Furthermore, there are few studies in sub-Saharan Africa validating the psychometric properties of diagnostic and screening tools for depression amongst adolescents. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of depression amongst a sample of HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi. The secondary aim was to develop culturally adapted Chichewa versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Children's Depression Inventory-II-Short (CDI-II-S) and conduct a psychometric evaluation of these measures by evaluating their performance against a structured depression assessment using the Children's Rating Scale, Revised (CDRS-R). Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We enrolled 562 adolescents, 12-18 years of age from two large public HIV clinics in central and southern Malawi. Participants completed two self-reports, the BDI-II and CDI-II-S, followed by administration of the CDRS-R by trained clinicians. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for various BDI-II and CDI-II-S cut-off scores were calculated with receiver operating characteristics analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) was also calculated. Internal consistency was measured by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and correlation between self-reports and CDRS-R by Spearman's correlation. Results: Prevalence of depression as measured by the CDRS-R was 18.9%. Suicidal ideation was expressed by 7.1% (40) using the BDI-II. The AUC for the BDI-II was 0.82 (95% CI 0.78-0.89) and for the CDI-II-S was 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.80). A score of ≥13 in BDI-II achieved sensitivity of >80%, and a score of ≥17 had a specificity of >80%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 (BDI-II) and 0.66 (CDI-II-S). The correlation between the BDI-II and CDRS-R was 0.42 (p<0.001) and between the CDI-II-S and CDRS-R was 0.37 (p<0.001).Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the BDI-II has sound psychometric properties in an outpatient setting among HIV-positive adolescents in Malawi. The high prevalence of depression amongst HIV-positive Malawian adolescents noted in this study underscores the need for the development of comprehensive services for HIV-positive adolescents.
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    ABSTRACT: Background While studies have suggested that depression and HIV-related stigma may impede access to care, a growing body of literature also suggests that access to HIV care itself may help to decrease internalized HIV-related stigma and symptoms of depression in the general population of persons living with HIV. However, this has not been investigated in postpartum women living with HIV. Furthermore, linkage to care itself may have additional impacts on postpartum depression beyond the effects of antiretroviral therapy. We examined associations between linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and internalized stigma in a population with a high risk of depression: newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women.Methods In this prospective observational study, data were obtained from 135 HIV-positive women from eight antenatal clinics in the rural Nyanza Province of Kenya at their first antenatal visit (prior to testing HIV-positive for the first time) and subsequently at 6 weeks after giving birth.ResultsAt 6 weeks postpartum, women who had not linked to HIV care after testing positive at their first antenatal visit had higher levels of depression and internalized stigma, compared to women who had linked to care. Internalized stigma mediated the effect of linkage to care on depression. Furthermore, participants who had both linked to HIV care and initiated antiretroviral therapy reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms.Conclusions These results provide further support for current efforts to ensure that women who are newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy become linked to HIV care as early as possible, with important benefits for both physical and mental health.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):400. · 2.52 Impact Factor

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