Triennial Growth Symposium: important roles for L-glutamine in swine nutrition and production.
ABSTRACT L-Glutamine (Gln) has traditionally not been considered a nutrient needed in diets for livestock species or even mentioned in classic animal nutrition textbooks. This is due to previous technical difficulties in Gln analysis and the unsubstantiated assumption that animals can synthesize sufficient amounts of Gln to meet their needs. Consequently, the current (1998) version of NRC does not recommend dietary Gln requirements for swine. This lack of knowledge about Gln nutrition has contributed to suboptimal efficiency of global pig production. Because of recent advances in research, Gln is now known to be an abundant AA in physiological fluids and proteins and a key regulator of gene expression. Additionally, Gln can regulate cell signaling via the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, Jun kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nitric oxide. The exquisite integration of Gln-dependent regulatory networks has profound effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism, homeostasis, survival, and function. As a result of translating basic research into practice, dietary supplementation with 1% Gln maintains gut health and prevents intestinal dysfunction in low-birth-weight or early-weaned piglets while increasing their growth performance and survival. In addition, supplementing 1% Gln to a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet between d 90 and 114 of gestation ameliorates fetal growth retardation in gilts and reduces preweaning mortality of piglets. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with 1% Gln enhances milk production by lactating sows. Thus, adequate amounts of dietary Gln, a major nutrient, are necessary to support the maximum growth, development, and production performance of swine.
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ABSTRACT: Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.Amino Acids 11/2012; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO(2) administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30 %. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model.Amino Acids 01/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that reduces feed intake and animal performance, especially in swine. Arginine and glutamine play important roles in swine nutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamine on both the impairment induced by DON stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs. A total of forty 60-d-old healthy growing pigs with a mean body weight of 16.28±1.54 kg were randomly divided into 5 groups, and assigned to 3 amino acid treatments fed 1.0% arginine (Arg), 1.0% glutamine (Gln) and 0.5% Arg+0.5% Gln, respectively, plus a toxin control and a non-toxin control. Pigs in the 3 amino acid treatments were fed the corresponding amino acids, and those in non-toxin control and toxin control were fed commercial diet with 1.64% Alanine as isonitrogenous control for 7 days. The toxin control and amino acid treatments were then challenged by feeding DON-contaminated diet with a final DON concentration of 6 mg/kg of diet for 21 days. No significant differences were observed between toxin control and the amino acid groups with regard to the average daily gain (ADG), although the values for average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the amino acid groups were significantly higher than that in toxin control (P<0.01). The relative liver weight in toxin control was significantly greater than those in non-toxin control, arginine and Arg+Glu groups (P<0.01), but there were no significant differences in other organs. With regard to serum biochemistry, the values of BUN, ALP, ALT and AST in the amino acid groups were lower than those in toxin control. IGF1, GH and SOD in the amino acid groups were significantly higher than those in toxin control (P<0.01). The IL-2 and TNFα values in the amino acid groups were similar to those in non-toxin control, and significantly lower than those in toxin control (P<0.01). These results showed the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamine on alleviating the impairment induced by DON stress and immune relevant cytokines in growing pigs.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69502. · 3.73 Impact Factor