Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction in part as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. Function and survival of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as sca1(+) c-kit(+) flk-1(+) bone marrow-derived cells), which significantly contribute to neovascularization and endothelial regeneration, depend on controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mice heterozygous for the gene deletion of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr(+/-)) have a 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in plasma homocysteine. This mild HHcy significantly reduced the number of circulating EPCs as well as their differentiation. Mthfr deficiency was also associated with increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) generation in Mthfr(+/-) EPCs. Treatment of EPCs with sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), significantly reduced ROS and improved NO production. mRNA and protein expression of eNOS and the relative amount of eNOS dimer compared with monomer were decreased by Mthfr deficiency. Impaired differentiation of EPCs induced by Mthfr deficiency correlated with increased senescence, decreased telomere length, and reduced expression of SIRT1. Addition of sepiapterin maintained cell senescence and SIRT1 expression at levels comparable to the wild type. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mthfr deficiency impairs EPC formation and increases EPC senescence by eNOS uncoupling and downregulation of SIRT1.
"In fact, statins have been shown to stimulate angiogenesis by upregulation of the expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) –. eNOS is a key enzyme in the generation of nitric oxide in endothelial lineage cells, which not only contributes to angiogenesis induced by various stimuli  but also plays an important role in the mobilization of BM EPCs –; and studies from other laboratories suggest that statins enhance the functions of EPCs –. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (circEPCs) of bone marrow (BM) origin contribute to postnatal neovascularization and represent a potential therapeutic target for ischemic disease. Statins are beneficial for ischemia disease and have been implicated to increase neovascularization via mechanisms independent of lipid lowering. However, the effect of Statins on EPC function is not completely understood. Here we sought to investigate the effects of Rosuvastatin (Ros) on EPC mobilization and EPC-mediated neovascularization during ischemic injury. In a mouse model of surgically-induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI), treatment of mice with low dose (0.1 mg/kg) but not high dose (5 mg/kg) significantly increased capillary density and accelerated blood flow recovery, as compared to saline-treated group. When HLI was induced in mice that had received Tie2/LacZ BM transplantation, Ros treatment led a significantly larger amount of endothelial cells (ECs) of BM origin incorporated at ischemic sites than saline. After treatment of mice with a single low dose of Ros, circEPCs significantly increased from 2 h, peaked at 4 h, declined until 8 h. In a growth-factor reduced Matrigel plug-in assay, Ros treatment for 5 d induced endothelial lineage differentiation in vivo. Interestingly, the enhanced circEPCs and post-HLI neovascularization stimulated by Ros were blunted in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Ros increased p-Akt/p-eNOS levels in EPCs in vitro, indicating these effects of Ros are dependent on eNOS activity. We conclude that Ros increases circEPCs and promotes their de novo differentiation through eNOS pathway.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63126. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063126 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) serves as a critical enzyme in maintaining vascular pressure by producing nitric oxide (NO); hence, it has a crucial role in the regulation of endothelial function. The bioavailability of eNOS-derived NO is crucial for this function and might be affected at multiple levels. Uncoupling of eNOS, with subsequently less NO and more superoxide generation, is one of the major underlying causes of endothelial dysfunction found in atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hyperhomocysteinemia, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, modulating eNOS uncoupling by stabilizing eNOS activity, enhancing its substrate, cofactors, and transcription, and reversing uncoupled eNOS are attractive therapeutic approaches to improve endothelial function. This review provides an extensive overview of the important role of eNOS uncoupling in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and the potential therapeutic interventions to modulate eNOS for tackling endothelial dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ovarian peptide hormone, relaxin, circulates during pregnancy, contributing to profound maternal vasodilation through endothelial and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanisms. Circulating numbers of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells (BMDECs), which facilitate angiogenesis and contribute to repair of vascular endothelium, increase during pregnancy. Thus, we hypothesized that relaxin enhances BMDEC NO production, circulating numbers, and function. Recombinant human relaxin-2 (rhRLX) stimulated PI3K/Akt B-dependent NO production in human BMDECs within minutes, and activated BMDEC migration that was inhibited by L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester. In BMDECs isolated from relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 gene (Rxfp2) knockout and wild-type mice, but not Rxfp1 knockout mice, rhRLX rapidly increased NO production. Similarly, rhRLX increased circulating BMDEC number in Rxfp2 knockout and wild-type mice, but not Rxfp1 knockout mice as assessed by colony formation and flow cytometry. Taken together, these results indicate that relaxin effects BMDEC function through the RXFP1 receptor. Finally, both vascularization and incorporation of GFP-labeled BMDECs were stimulated in rhRLX-impregnated Matrigel pellets implanted in mice. To conclude, relaxin is a novel regulator of BMDECs number and function, which has implications for angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in pregnancy, as well as therapeutic potential in vascular disease.
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