Mthfr deficiency induces endothelial progenitor cell senescence via uncoupling of eNOS and downregulation of SIRT1
ABSTRACT Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction in part as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. Function and survival of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as sca1(+) c-kit(+) flk-1(+) bone marrow-derived cells), which significantly contribute to neovascularization and endothelial regeneration, depend on controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mice heterozygous for the gene deletion of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr(+/-)) have a 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in plasma homocysteine. This mild HHcy significantly reduced the number of circulating EPCs as well as their differentiation. Mthfr deficiency was also associated with increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) generation in Mthfr(+/-) EPCs. Treatment of EPCs with sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), significantly reduced ROS and improved NO production. mRNA and protein expression of eNOS and the relative amount of eNOS dimer compared with monomer were decreased by Mthfr deficiency. Impaired differentiation of EPCs induced by Mthfr deficiency correlated with increased senescence, decreased telomere length, and reduced expression of SIRT1. Addition of sepiapterin maintained cell senescence and SIRT1 expression at levels comparable to the wild type. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mthfr deficiency impairs EPC formation and increases EPC senescence by eNOS uncoupling and downregulation of SIRT1.
SourceAvailable from: Casale Rosario[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Silent information regulator-2 (Sir-2) proteins, or sirtuins, are a highly conserved protein family of histone deacetylases that promote longevity by mediating many of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction which extends life span and reduces the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes. Here, we review the role of sirtuins (SIRT1-7) in vascular homeostasis and diseases by providing an update on the latest knowledge about their roles in endothelial damage and vascular repair mechanisms. Among all sirtuins, in the light of the numerous functions reported on SIRT1 in the vascular system, herein we discuss its roles not only in the control of endothelial cells (EC) functionality but also in other cell types beyond EC, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), smooth muscle cells (SMC), and immune cells. Furthermore, we also provide an update on the growing field of compounds under clinical evaluation for the modulation of SIRT1 which, at the state of the art, represents the most promising target for the development of novel drugs against CVD, especially when concomitant with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 03/2015; 1852(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.03.001 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: According to the World Health Organization, diabetes mellitus (DM) in the year 2030 will be ranked the seventh leading cause of death in the world. DM impacts all systems of the body with oxidant stress controlling cell fate through endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in uncoupling proteins, and the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Multiple treatment approaches are being entertained for DM with Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1 (S. cerevisiae) (SIRT1) generating significant interest as target pathways that can address maintenance of glucose homeostasis as well as prevention of cellular pathology by controlling insulin resistance, stem cell proliferation, and the programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy. WISP1, mTOR, and SIRT1 can rely upon similar pathways such as AMP activated protein kinase as well as govern cellular metabolism through cytokines such as EPO and oral hypoglycemics such as metformin. Yet, these pathways require precise biological control to exclude potentially detrimental clinical outcomes. Further elucidation of the ability to translate the roles of WISP1, mTOR, and SIRT1 into effective clinical avenues offers compelling prospects for new therapies against DM that can benefit hundreds of millions of individuals throughout the globe.Current Neurovascular Research 03/2015; 12(2). · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease, nervous system disorders, and cancer in association with other diseases such as diabetes mellitus result in greater than sixty percent of the global annual deaths. These noncommunicable diseases also affect at least one-third of the population in low and middle-income countries and lead to hypertension, elevated cholesterol, malignancy, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. With the climbing lifespan of the world's population, increased prevalence of these disorders is expected requiring the development of new therapeutic strategies against these disabling disease entities. Targeting stem cell proliferation for cardiac disease, vascular disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders is receiving great enthusiasm, especially those that focus upon SIRT1, a mammalian homologue of the yeast silent information regulator-2. Modulation of the cellular activity of SIRT1 can involve oversight by nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, mechanistic of rapamycin pathways, and cysteine-rich protein 61, connective tissue growth factor, and nephroblastoma over-expressed gene family members that can impact cytoprotective outcomes. Ultimately, the ability of SIRT1 to control the programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can determine not only cardiac, vascular, and neuronal stem cell development and longevity, but also the onset of tumorigenesis and the resistance against chemotherapy. SIRT1 therefore has a critical role and holds exciting prospects for new therapeutic strategies that can offer reparative processes for cardiac, vascular, and nervous system degenerative disorders as well as targeted control of aberrant cell growth during cancer.03/2015; 7(2):235-242. DOI:10.4252/wjsc.v7.i2.235