Mthfr deficiency induces endothelial progenitor cell senescence via uncoupling of eNOS and downregulation of SIRT1.
ABSTRACT Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to induce endothelial dysfunction in part as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. Function and survival of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, defined as sca1(+) c-kit(+) flk-1(+) bone marrow-derived cells), which significantly contribute to neovascularization and endothelial regeneration, depend on controlled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mice heterozygous for the gene deletion of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr(+/-)) have a 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in plasma homocysteine. This mild HHcy significantly reduced the number of circulating EPCs as well as their differentiation. Mthfr deficiency was also associated with increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) generation in Mthfr(+/-) EPCs. Treatment of EPCs with sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), a cofactor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), significantly reduced ROS and improved NO production. mRNA and protein expression of eNOS and the relative amount of eNOS dimer compared with monomer were decreased by Mthfr deficiency. Impaired differentiation of EPCs induced by Mthfr deficiency correlated with increased senescence, decreased telomere length, and reduced expression of SIRT1. Addition of sepiapterin maintained cell senescence and SIRT1 expression at levels comparable to the wild type. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mthfr deficiency impairs EPC formation and increases EPC senescence by eNOS uncoupling and downregulation of SIRT1.
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ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Downregulation of levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during in-vitro short-term exposure to high glucose concentrations relates to reduced activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and increased synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF). We investigated the possible relationship between PAF and SIRT1 pathways in EPCs during altered glucose homeostasis. METHODS: SIRT1 and PAF receptor (PAF-R) levels were determined by western blot, RT-PCR and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. In-vivo experiments were performed on 48 type 2 diabetic patients (25 with poor glycaemic control and 23 with good glycaemic control) and 20 control individuals. In-vitro experiments with the PAF-R antagonist CV3988 were performed on EPCs isolated from leucocyte-rich buffy coat of healthy human donors. RESULTS: Decreased SIRT1 protein levels were observed in EPCs from type 2 diabetic patients compared with control individuals (p < 0.01). Notably, the SIRT1 level was consistently lower in patients with poor glycaemic control than in those with good glycaemic control (p < 0.01). Diabetic patients also showed an upregulation of PAF-Rs; this response occurred to a greater extent in individuals with poor glycaemic control than in those with good glycaemic control. In-vitro experiments confirmed that EPCs respond to PAF stimulation with decreased SIRT1 protein and SIRT1 mRNA levels. Moreover, reduction of SIRT1 levels and activity were abolished by CV3988. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These findings unveil a link between PAF and SIRT1 pathways in EPCs that contributes to the deleterious effect of hyperglycaemia on the functional properties of EPCs, crucial in diabetes and peripheral vascular complications.Diabetologia 10/2012; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ovarian peptide hormone, relaxin, circulates during pregnancy, contributing to profound maternal vasodilation through endothelial and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanisms. Circulating numbers of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells (BMDECs), which facilitate angiogenesis and contribute to repair of vascular endothelium, increase during pregnancy. Thus, we hypothesized that relaxin enhances BMDEC NO production, circulating numbers, and function. Recombinant human relaxin-2 (rhRLX) stimulated PI3K/Akt B-dependent NO production in human BMDECs within minutes, and activated BMDEC migration that was inhibited by L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester. In BMDECs isolated from relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 gene (Rxfp2) knockout and wild-type mice, but not Rxfp1 knockout mice, rhRLX rapidly increased NO production. Similarly, rhRLX increased circulating BMDEC number in Rxfp2 knockout and wild-type mice, but not Rxfp1 knockout mice as assessed by colony formation and flow cytometry. Taken together, these results indicate that relaxin effects BMDEC function through the RXFP1 receptor. Finally, both vascularization and incorporation of GFP-labeled BMDECs were stimulated in rhRLX-impregnated Matrigel pellets implanted in mice. To conclude, relaxin is a novel regulator of BMDECs number and function, which has implications for angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in pregnancy, as well as therapeutic potential in vascular disease.Blood 01/2012; 119(2):629-36. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (circEPCs) of bone marrow (BM) origin contribute to postnatal neovascularization and represent a potential therapeutic target for ischemic disease. Statins are beneficial for ischemia disease and have been implicated to increase neovascularization via mechanisms independent of lipid lowering. However, the effect of Statins on EPC function is not completely understood. Here we sought to investigate the effects of Rosuvastatin (Ros) on EPC mobilization and EPC-mediated neovascularization during ischemic injury. In a mouse model of surgically-induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI), treatment of mice with low dose (0.1 mg/kg) but not high dose (5 mg/kg) significantly increased capillary density and accelerated blood flow recovery, as compared to saline-treated group. When HLI was induced in mice that had received Tie2/LacZ BM transplantation, Ros treatment led a significantly larger amount of endothelial cells (ECs) of BM origin incorporated at ischemic sites than saline. After treatment of mice with a single low dose of Ros, circEPCs significantly increased from 2 h, peaked at 4 h, declined until 8 h. In a growth-factor reduced Matrigel plug-in assay, Ros treatment for 5 d induced endothelial lineage differentiation in vivo. Interestingly, the enhanced circEPCs and post-HLI neovascularization stimulated by Ros were blunted in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Ros increased p-Akt/p-eNOS levels in EPCs in vitro, indicating these effects of Ros are dependent on eNOS activity. We conclude that Ros increases circEPCs and promotes their de novo differentiation through eNOS pathway.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63126. · 3.73 Impact Factor