The myth and reality of disability prevalence: measuring disability for research and service.
ABSTRACT The concept of disability has medical, functional, and social components. We review the frameworks for the definition of disability and endorse a multidimensional approach that is parsimonious and has utility for epidemiology. We need to be able to count people with disabilities to quantify service and support needs, to study the life course of people with specific disabilities, and to accurately target prevention strategies. In addition, it is important to have some precise measures of disability so comparisons can be made between impairments, to identify disparities and differences, and to measure changes over time. We need to ensure that there is no confusion about cause and effect (attributing associated conditions as outcomes of disability when they are in fact the cause of the functional limitation) and that comparisons to people without disabilities are fair. If people who experience disability due to a condition such as obesity are included in the case definition of disability, then we cannot say people with disability are more likely to be obese. The credibility of disability epidemiology and the disability field is at stake.
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ABSTRACT: The role played in thyroid hormonogenesis by iodide oxidation to iodine (organification) is well established. Iodine deficiency may produce conditions of oxidative stress with high TSH producing a level of H_2O_2, which because of lack of iodide is not being used to form thyroid hormones. The cytotoxic actions of excess iodide in thyroid cells may depend on the formation of free radicals and can be attributed to both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms with necrosis predominating in goiter development and apoptosis during iodide induced involution. These cytotoxic effects appear to depend on the status of antioxidative enzymes and may only be evident in conditions of selenium deficiency where the activity of selenium containing antioxidative enzymes is impaired. Less compelling evidence exists of a role for iodide as an antioxidant in the breast. However the Japanese experience may indicate a protective effect against breast cancer for an iodine rich seaweed containing diet. Similarly thyroid autoimmunity may also be associated with improved prognosis. Whether this phenomenon is breast specific and its possible relationship to iodine or selenium status awaits resolution.BioFactors 02/2003; 19(3-4):121-30. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iodine (I2) has been proposed to be used as a water disinfectant on the manned space station. Previous work has shown that subchronic administration of I2 to Sprague-Dawley rats in drinking water significantly increases plasma thyroxine/triiodothyronine (T4/T3) levels. This is not observed with iodide (I-) treatment. The present study addresses the possibility that I2 reacts with deiodinated T4 metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract to resynthesize T4. Incubation of diiodothyronine (T2), T3, or reverse T3 with I2 in phosphate-buffered saline resulted in the formation of T4 as measured by radioimmunoassay. Washes from the initial segments of the small intestine of the rat show that substrates are present that react with I2 to produce T4. Single oral doses of I2 to rats produced significant dose-related increases in serum T4 and decreases in T3 concentrations after 2 h. Administration of an equivalent dose of I- did not alter significantly plasma T4 concentrations. Higher concentrations of a radioactive substance that bound a T4-specific antibody are present in plasma of animals treated with 125I2 compared to 125I-. These data support the hypothesis that I2 reacts with metabolites of thyroid hormone in the gastrointestinal tract to resynthesize T4 and elevate its levels in blood.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/1993; 37(4):535-48. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenosine administration delayed the fatty liver and cell necrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride without affecting the action of the hepatotoxin on protein synthesis and liver triacylglycerol release. Adenosine produced a drastic antilipolytic effect accompanied by a decrease in the incorporation of [1-14C]palmitic acid into triacylglycerols and free fatty acids of the liver. Furthermore, a decrease in the serum levels of ketone bodies was observed at early times. The nucleoside also avoided the release of intracellular enzymes and prevented the lipid peroxidation produced by carbon tetrachloride during the 4 hr of treatment. The protective action of adenosine was transient, lasting 3-4 hr, probably the time required to be metabolized. The results suggest that the antilipolytic effect of the nucleoside, the inhibition of hepatic fatty acid metabolism, and the decrease in carbon tetrachloride-induced lipoperoxidation that it produced are involved in the delayed acute hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride.Biochemical Pharmacology 09/1984; 33(16):2599-604. · 4.58 Impact Factor