Ghrelin attenuates heat-induced degenerative effects in the rat testis.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of ghrelin in prevention of deleterious effects of heat stress in rat testicular tissue. Forty five adult male rats were scheduled for this study and were divided equally into three groups: heat-saline, heat-ghrelin and control-saline. The scrota of heated-designed rats were immersed once in water bath at 43 °C for 15 min. Immediately upon heating, 2 nmol of ghrelin were given subcutaneously to heat-ghrelin animals every other day up to day 60 and physiological saline to the other two groups using the same method. The animals were sacrificed at 10, 30 and 60 days after heat treatment and their testes were taken for later photomicrograph and immunohistochemical analysis. Testicular histopathology revealed a significant reduction in the means of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nucleus diameters as well as germinal epithelium height on day 10 in both heated groups. Furthermore, other testicular components including miotic index, spermatogenesis rate, presence of spermatocytes and volume densities were dramatically decreased following heat exposure. Notably, ghrelin caused a partial recovery in all of the above-mentioned parameters and accelerated testicular regeneration process by day 30 compared to the heat-saline group (P<0.05). Because of testicular progressive recovery, these indices were similar among groups on day 60 (P>0.05). However, immunohistochemistry evaluation for in situ detection of Bcl-2 protein did not exhibit any germ cells-positive of this factor among groups at different experimental days. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate for the first time the novel evidences of ghrelin ability in attenuation of heat-induced testicular damage and also that ghrelin therapy may be useful as a suppressor of degenerative effects following testicular hyperthermia.
- SourceAvailable from: Samet KAPAKİNKafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 01/2013; 19(2):305-310. · 0.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis and proliferation are the common and essential events of reproductive function and development in the ovary, especially during follicular growth and atresia or luteal regression. Therefore, this study was set to investigate the influence of ghrelin treatment on apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in the rat ovary. Twenty-eight adult female Wistar rats were randomly allocated into control and treatment groups. Treatment group (n = 14) received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 14 consecutive days or vehicle (normal saline) to the control rats. The animals from each group were equally sacrificed on days 9 and 14 after onset of ghrelin treatment and their ovaries were taken for immunohistochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Accumulation of apoptosis-associated peptide Bax was significantly reduced following ghrelin treatment particularly in granulosa and luteal cells on day 14 (P < 0.01). In contrast, immunoreactivity against anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly elevated in ghrelin-exposed animals in granulosa, theca and luteal cells (P < 0.05). However, ghrelin administration was not able to change caspase-3 activity prominently, so that the means of enzyme activity were not statistically significant between groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, significant up-regulation of proliferation-associated peptide PCNA was also seen in the granulosa, theca and luteal cells of ghrelin-treated rats by day 14 (P < 0.05), but not on day 9. These findings indicate the first evidence of ghrelin involvement in the control of key gonadal functions, apoptosis and proliferation in the rat ovary, which is mainly mediated through decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio consistent with upstream of PCNA level, however not depends on the reduction of caspase-3 activation. This may have potential implications that ghrelin can be considered as an apoptotic modulator of some ovarian disorders.International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 09/2014; 20(3). · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: An adverse effect of oxymetholone (OXM), an anabolic-androgenic steroid used as energetic medicine, is reproductive toxicity. Royal jelly (RJ) is an efficient antioxidant that has been used to treat reproductive problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of RJ on OXM-induced oxidative injuries in mouse testes. Methods: Male mice were divided into four groups. Two groups of mice were administered OXM (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 28 days. One of these groups received RJ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) concurrently. A vehicle-treated control group and a RJ control group were also included. Results: The OXM-treated group showed a significant decrease in the serum testosterone concentration and spermatogenic activities, along with many histological alterations. OXM treatment also caused a significant decrease in catalase activity with an increase in lipid peroxidation in the mouse testes. The above-noted parameters were restored to near normal levels by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that RJ protects against OXM-induced reproductive toxicities. Keywords: Mouse, Oxymetholone, Royal Jelly, Testis.Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 06/2014; 8(25):1073-1080.