Ghrelin attenuates heat-induced degenerative effects in the rat testis.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of ghrelin in prevention of deleterious effects of heat stress in rat testicular tissue. Forty five adult male rats were scheduled for this study and were divided equally into three groups: heat-saline, heat-ghrelin and control-saline. The scrota of heated-designed rats were immersed once in water bath at 43 °C for 15 min. Immediately upon heating, 2 nmol of ghrelin were given subcutaneously to heat-ghrelin animals every other day up to day 60 and physiological saline to the other two groups using the same method. The animals were sacrificed at 10, 30 and 60 days after heat treatment and their testes were taken for later photomicrograph and immunohistochemical analysis. Testicular histopathology revealed a significant reduction in the means of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nucleus diameters as well as germinal epithelium height on day 10 in both heated groups. Furthermore, other testicular components including miotic index, spermatogenesis rate, presence of spermatocytes and volume densities were dramatically decreased following heat exposure. Notably, ghrelin caused a partial recovery in all of the above-mentioned parameters and accelerated testicular regeneration process by day 30 compared to the heat-saline group (P<0.05). Because of testicular progressive recovery, these indices were similar among groups on day 60 (P>0.05). However, immunohistochemistry evaluation for in situ detection of Bcl-2 protein did not exhibit any germ cells-positive of this factor among groups at different experimental days. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate for the first time the novel evidences of ghrelin ability in attenuation of heat-induced testicular damage and also that ghrelin therapy may be useful as a suppressor of degenerative effects following testicular hyperthermia.
- SourceAvailable from: Bayard T Storey[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The rate of spontaneous lipid peroxidation, as measured by formation of malonaldehyde (MA), was determined as a function of O2 concentration and temperature in mouse and rabbit spermatozoa released from the cauda epididymidis. The peroxidation rate was linear in O2 concentration in the suspending medium up to 210 microM (the concentration at PO2 of ambient air at 34 degrees C) for sperm from both species over the temperature range 34-40 degrees C. This is the range over which the reaction is measurable for both species: below 34 degrees C, the rates become too slow to be measured accurately for rabbit sperm by our methods, while above 40 degrees C the rates for mouse sperm become too rapid. This narrow range is characteristic of a high activation energy (EA) for the peroxidation process. Values of EA were calculated from plots of kox versus (T)-1, where kox is a second order rate constant with the units (10(8) cells/ml)-1 min-1. It is defined by the equation: vma = kox (Sp) (O2), where vma is the rate of malonaldehyde production, (Sp) is concentration of sperm cells and (O2) is the O2 concentration in the suspending medium. For mouse sperm, EA was calculated to 78.7 kcal/mol (329 KJ/mol); for rabbit sperm, the value was 77.6 kcal/ml (324 KJ/mol). These high EAs and consequent steep dependence of the spontaneous lipid peroxidation rates on temperature favor long sperm life in the epididymis at around 32 degrees C and low PO2 in these scrotal animals, while allowing for a relatively short life at 37 degrees C at higher PO2 in the oviduct.Biology of Reproduction 04/1985; 32(2):342-51. · 4.03 Impact Factor
- J Reprod Fertil 01/1968; 14(3):427-37.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the effects of a short episode of testicular heating (43 degrees C for 15 min) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli and Leydig cell function. Rats killed at intervals up to 156 days after heating were assessed by histological examination, and by measurement of serum FSH and LH, and by tests of Sertoli cell function consisting of fluid production, androgen binding protein (ABP) content of the ligated and unligated tests, together with the binding of [125I]FSH. Leydig cell function was assessed by in vitro testosterone production, serum testosterone levels and [125I]hCG binding to testes homogenates. Testis weight declined 7 days after heating to 70% of control and remained lower until 82 days, whereas epididymal weight did not decrease significantly until 26 days and also recovered by 82 days. Fluid production was significantly lower in heated testes at 26 days and returned to normal at 56 days. ABP production measured as the difference between the ABP content of ligated and unligated testes was significantly reduced at 14 and 26 days, but subsequently recovered. Serum FSH levels were significantly elevated from 14-26 days in the heat treated group and the binding of [125I]FSH was reduced at 26 days post-heating. Basal and stimulated in vitro T production was significantly increased in the heat-treated testes at 14 days and subsequently returned to normal whilst [125I]hCG binding was significantly lower in the heat-treated testes from 7-26 days. Serum T and LH did not alter significantly during the study. Primary spermatocytes and young spermatids were the most heat sensitive germ cell type and a reduction in spermatogenesis was noted from 7 to 26 days, although recovery appeared complete by 56 days and thereafter. These results demonstrate that the transient spermatogenic disruption induced by heating is accompanied by significant alterations in Sertoli and Leydig cell function which are identical to those produced in other models of spermatogenic dysfunction. The results suggest that the duration of these changes appears to correlate closely with alterations occurring in the germ cell compartment.International Journal of Andrology 07/1984; 7(3):244-57. · 3.57 Impact Factor