Protein dietary reference intakes may be inadequate for vegetarians if low amounts of animal protein are consumed
ABSTRACT The health benefits of vegetarian diets are well-recognized; however, long-term adherence to these diets may be associated with nutrient inadequacies, particularly vitamins B12 and D, calcium, iron, zinc, and protein. The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) expert panels recommended adjustments to the iron, zinc, and calcium DRIs for vegetarians to account for decreased bioavailability, but no adjustments were considered necessary for the protein DRI under the assumption that vegetarians consume about 50% of protein from animal (dairy/egg) sources. This study examined dietary protein sources in a convenience sample of 21 young adult vegetarian women who completed food logs on 4 consecutive days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day).
The daily contribution percentages of protein consumed from cereals, legumes, nuts/seeds, fruits/vegetables, and dairy/egg were computed, and the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score of the daily diets was calculated.
The calculated total dietary protein digestibility score for participants was 82 ± 1%, which differed significantly (P < 0.001) from the DRI reference score, 88%, and the 4-d average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score for the sample was 80 ± 2%, which also differed significantly (P < 0.001) from the DRI reference value, 100%. The analyses indicated that animal protein accounted for only 21% of dietary protein.
This research suggests that the protein DRI for vegetarians consuming less than the expected amounts of animal protein (45% to 50% of total protein) may need to be adjusted from 0.8 to about 1.0 g/kg to account for decreased protein bioavailability.
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ABSTRACT: Food systems account for 18-20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health. We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health. A database was created that linked nutrient composition and GHGE data for 82 food groups. Linear programming was used iteratively to produce a diet that met the dietary requirements of an adult woman (19-50 y old) while minimizing GHGEs. Acceptability constraints were added to the model to include foods commonly consumed in the United Kingdom in sensible quantities. A sample menu was created to ensure that the quantities and types of food generated from the model could be combined into a realistic 7-d diet. Reductions in GHGEs of the diets were set against 1990 emission values. The first model, without any acceptability constraints, produced a 90% reduction in GHGEs but included only 7 food items, all in unrealistic quantities. The addition of acceptability constraints gave a more realistic diet with 52 foods but reduced GHGEs by a lesser amount of 36%. This diet included meat products but in smaller amounts than in the current diet. The retail cost of the diet was comparable to the average UK expenditure on food. A sustainable diet that meets dietary requirements for health with lower GHGEs can be achieved without eliminating meat or dairy products or increasing the cost to the consumer.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2012; 96(3):632-9. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.038729 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Plant proteins such as rapeseed have received little attention for human nutrition due to their high level of antinutritive compounds. Today, newer technologies can eliminate such compounds. The present intervention study aimed to evaluate nutritional and physiological properties of two manufactured canola proteins with special focus on their bioavailability in humans. METHODS: 28 healthy male subjects (ø 25 years) consumed 30.0 g protein (canola protein isolate - CPI, canola protein hydrolyzate - CPH or soy protein isolate - SPI) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Blood samples were regularly drawn over the 8-h postprandial period and a 24-h urine sample was collected. RESULTS: True digestibility of the canola proteins determined in a separate rat assay showed 93.3% for CPI and 97.3% for CPH. In humans, consumption of either 30.0 g canola protein or soy protein mixed in a drink led to significant increases in plasma amino acids after 62.3 and 83.6 min, respectively. While the CPH produced an earlier response compared to CPI and SPI, total amino acid response (AUC for 8 h) was comparable between all interventions. The nitrogen balance between the three proteins tested showed no statistical differences. CONCLUSIONS: High digestibility of rapeseed protein was found in rats. In humans, this is the first intervention study showing rapeseed protein (both isolate and hydrolyzate) as having a high nutritional quality and can be considered to be as efficient as soy protein for a postprandial amino acid response. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01481584.Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 11/2012; 32(4). DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.11.005 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.Appetite 04/2013; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.03.015 · 2.69 Impact Factor