Standard method for ultrasound imaging of coronary artery in children.
ABSTRACT The Child Coronary Arterial Diameter Reference Study Group of the Japan Kawasaki Disease Society recommends ultrasound imaging as the standard method for measuring the diameter of the coronary artery in children. The patient is examined in a supine or right decubitus position by using a sector probe (≥ 5 MHz). The coronary arterial diameter measured at the minimum gain setting is the distance between the internal echo edge and the internal echo edge. The diameter is measured during the early diastolic phase at the end of the T wave. The left main coronary artery and the proximal right coronary artery are approached from the precordial short axis at the level of the aortic valve. The proximal and mid-right coronary arteries are observed on the atrioventricular groove, anterior to the tricuspid valve ring. The right coronary artery of the acute margin of the heart runs along the right side of the tricuspid valve ring. The distal right coronary artery is observed on the posterior atrioventricular groove, and the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery is observed on the posterior interventricular groove. The right coronary artery is also well observed from the right sternal border in the right decubitus position. Proximal and mid-anterior descending arteries are observed on the anterior interventricular groove. The proximal left circumflex coronary artery is observed in the atrioventricular groove, anterior to the mitral valve ring.
- The American Journal of Cardiology 04/1979; 43(3):560-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our institute, 1100 patients with a history of Kawasaki disease have been catheterized for selective coronary arteriography. Their age at examination ranged from four months to 13 years. Coronary artery lesions (CAL) were found in 262 patients. As far as the type of the CAL was concerned, occlusion was noted in 20 (7.6%), segmental stenosis in 15 (5.7%), localized stenosis in 62 (23.7%), aneurysm in 93 (35.5%), and dilatation in 72 patients (27.5%). In terms of the total number of lesions, there were 23 occlusions, 19 segmental stenoses, 109 localized stenoses, 449 aneurysms and 307 dilatations. The 262 patients with CAL were analyzed according to the interval from the onset to the time of selective coronary arteriography. The incidence of both occlusion and segmental stenosis was lowest in the group who were catheterized shortly after the onset of disease, whereas the prevalence of aneurysm was highest in this group. But the prevalence of dilatation was highest in the group of patients who were catheterized late. A total of 12 patients had to undergo femoral arterial thrombectomy for arterial thrombosis following the catheterization, but no other major complication was experienced.Pediatric Cardiology 02/1986; 7(1):3-9. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The resolution and accuracy of commercially available two dimensional echocardiographic systems were tested by imaging two types of in vitro test objects. One consisted of a series of fine parallel threads spaced at known intervals and the other was a tissue phantom in which a series of holes of known size had been cut. The echocardiographic systems tested included a mechanical single element sector scanner, a three element rotary sector scanner and a phased array system. Azimuthal resolution, lateral resolution and accuracy of horizontal distance measurements were assessed at depths of 2 and 6 cm. For each system, azimuthal resolution was better than lateral resolution, especially when assessed with use of the parallel threads. When the tissue phantom was imaged, the best resolution (2 mm in azimuthal and lateral directions) was obtained with the highest frequency transducer tested (3.5 MHz). The apparent size of a tissue defect was sensitive to gain settings, especially at a depth of 2 cm with lower frequency transducers; at a depth of 6 cm, echographic measurements of defect size were accurate to within 2.5 mm. Recent applications of two dimensional echocardiography require near the apparent limits of current equipment. It is recommended that the highest frequency transducer and lowest possible gain settings be used in these situations.The American Journal of Cardiology 08/1981; 48(1):106-10. · 3.21 Impact Factor