Article

Standard method for ultrasound imaging of coronary artery in children.

Department of Pediatrics of NTT East Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. shigeto_fuse.ntt.co.jp
Pediatrics International (Impact Factor: 0.88). 12/2010; 52(6):876-82. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2010.03252.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Child Coronary Arterial Diameter Reference Study Group of the Japan Kawasaki Disease Society recommends ultrasound imaging as the standard method for measuring the diameter of the coronary artery in children. The patient is examined in a supine or right decubitus position by using a sector probe (≥ 5 MHz). The coronary arterial diameter measured at the minimum gain setting is the distance between the internal echo edge and the internal echo edge. The diameter is measured during the early diastolic phase at the end of the T wave. The left main coronary artery and the proximal right coronary artery are approached from the precordial short axis at the level of the aortic valve. The proximal and mid-right coronary arteries are observed on the atrioventricular groove, anterior to the tricuspid valve ring. The right coronary artery of the acute margin of the heart runs along the right side of the tricuspid valve ring. The distal right coronary artery is observed on the posterior atrioventricular groove, and the posterior descending branch of the right coronary artery is observed on the posterior interventricular groove. The right coronary artery is also well observed from the right sternal border in the right decubitus position. Proximal and mid-anterior descending arteries are observed on the anterior interventricular groove. The proximal left circumflex coronary artery is observed in the atrioventricular groove, anterior to the mitral valve ring.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: To clarify the contribution of patient age to the development of coronary artery lesions (CALs) associated with Kawasaki disease (KD), epidemiologic features and prognostic factors were investigated using hospital-based complete enumeration surveys in a specific area.Methods: Consecutive KD cases identified between October 1999 and September 2012 in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was the presence/absence of CALs (giant aneurysm, mid- or small-sized aneurysm, and dilatation) on echocardiography 1 month after disease onset. Demographics and medical treatment factors were compared between the patients with and without CALs. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of explanatory variables (age, gender, and factors related to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment) for the development of CALs were determined.Results: The median age of the 1415 patients (796 males, 619 females) was 25 months after excluding 2 children of foreign residents; 2.2% of the patients had a past history of KD, and 1.8% showed incomplete presentation. CALs were observed in 3.3% (4.0% of males, 2.3% of females; P = 0.080). The ORs of CALs among patients <11 months old (3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.6) and those >48 months old (3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.6) were significantly higher than values in 11- to 48-month-olds.Conclusions: The effect of patient age on the development of CALs was found to be U-shaped, with the bottom at ages 11 to 48 months. This finding was based on a 13-year cohort of consecutive KD cases in a specific area with little selection bias and is consistent with previously reported results.
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