The role of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 and 2 in chronic skin inflammation in mice.
ABSTRACT Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 and 2 (MSK1/2) are two kinases phosphorylated by both ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Recently, MSK1 and 2 have been reported to act as negative regulators of acute inflammation. In this study, we investigated the role of MSK1/2 in chronic skin inflammation using an oxazolone-induced allergic contact dermatitis model in MSK1/2 knockout mice and wild-type mice. MSK1/2 knockout mice were demonstrated to have significantly increased inflammation compared with wild-type mice. This was measured by an increased ear thickness, elevated infiltration of neutrophils in the skin and increased inflammatory histological changes. Furthermore, we found significantly elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β and IL-6 at both mRNA and protein levels in MSK1/2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice after oxazolone treatment. In addition, the mRNA expression of the chemokine Thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) was demonstrated to be significantly elevated in oxazolone-treated MSK1/2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. The increased expression of TARC was paralleled by increased infiltration of cells positive for the TARC receptor, CCR4, in the dermis of MSK1/2 knockout mice. Our results indicate that MSK1/2 are involved in the activation of feedback mechanisms that dampen oxazolone-induced skin inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: The chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC; CCL17) is displayed by cutaneous (but not intestinal) venules, and is thought to trigger vascular arrest of circulating skin homing memory T cells, which uniformly express the TARC receptor CC chemokine receptor (CCR)4. Cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK; CCL27), expressed by skin keratinocytes, also attracts cutaneous memory T cells, and is hypothesized to assist in lymphocyte recruitment to skin as well. Here we show that chronic cutaneous inflammation induces CD4 T cells expressing E-selectin binding activity (a marker of skin homing memory cells) in draining lymph node, and that these E-selectin ligand+ T cells migrate efficiently to TARC and to CTACK. In 24 h in vivo homing assays, stimulated lymph node T cells from wild-type mice or, surprisingly, from CCR4-deficient donors migrate efficiently to inflamed skin; and an inhibitory anti-CTACK antibody has no effect on wild-type lymphocyte recruitment. However, inhibition with anti-CTACK monoclonal antibody abrogates skin recruitment of CCR4-deficient T cells. We conclude that CTACK and CCR4 can both support homing of T cells to skin, and that either one or the other is required for lymphocyte recruitment in cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity.Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2001; 194(10):1541-7. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conserved signaling pathways that activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in relaying extracellular stimulations to intracellular responses. The MAPKs coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival, which are functions also known to be mediated by members of a growing family of MAPK-activated protein kinases (MKs; formerly known as MAPKAP kinases). The MKs are related serine/threonine kinases that respond to mitogenic and stress stimuli through proline-directed phosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPKs. There are currently 11 vertebrate MKs in five subfamilies based on primary sequence homology: the ribosomal S6 kinases, the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases, the MAPK-interacting kinases, MAPK-activated protein kinases 2 and 3, and MK5. In the last 5 years, several MK substrates have been identified, which has helped tremendously to identify the biological role of the members of this family. Together with data from the study of MK-knockout mice, the identities of the MK substrates indicate that they play important roles in diverse biological processes, including mRNA translation, cell proliferation and survival, and the nuclear genomic response to mitogens and cellular stresses. In this article, we review the existing data on the MKs and discuss their physiological functions based on recent discoveries.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 07/2004; 68(2):320-44. · 16.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An analysis was conducted of the cytokine profile and inflammatory response in oxazolone sensitized mouse skin. Following exposure to oxazolone, the intralesional production of inflammatory cytokines was demonstrable at the levels of both mRNA and protein. An initial challenge led to a transient increase in tumor necrosis factor-α production followed predominately by the T helper (Th)1 cytokine, interferon-γ. There was a minimal production of interleukin-4, a Th2 cytokine. Continued exposure to oxazolone led to a downregulation of interferon-γ and an upregulation of interleukin-4 production. A strong relationship was found between interleukin-4 and the inflammatory response, as measured by ear thickness. Similar experiments conducted in mast cell-deficient mice revealed reduced neutrophil influx but only minor changes in cytokine profile. An irritant response induced by chronic exposure of mouse skin to phorbol ester did not reveal any significant interferon-γ or interleukin-4 response but was characterized by a tumor necrosis factor-α response that correlated with the inflammatory response. These observations suggest that the major source of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 in the oxazolone response may be the infiltrating lymphocytes; whereas the tumor necrosis factor-α may result from the local irritation seen with both oxazolone and phorbol ester. At the end of 4 wk of chronic exposure to oxazolone, it was found that serum IgE levels had significantly increased. Histologic analysis of the skin lesion revealed that a mixed infiltrate including eosinophils developed upon repeat exposure to oxazolone. These findings are consistent with an early predominate Th1 response that is reduced and largely replaced with a Th2 response upon chronic T cell activation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/1998; 111(1):86-92. · 6.19 Impact Factor