Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle

Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1 Canada.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.34). 12/2010; 35(6):725-40. DOI: 10.1139/H10-079
Source: PubMed


Sedentary behaviour is associated with deleterious health outcomes, which differ from those that can be attributed to a lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity. This has led to the field of "sedentary physiology", which may be considered as separate and distinct from exercise physiology. This paper gives an overview of this emerging area of research and highlights the ways that it differs from traditional exercise physiology. Definitions of key terms associated with the field of sedentary physiology and a review of the self-report and objective methods for assessing sedentary behaviour are provided. Proposed mechanisms of sedentary physiology are examined, and how they differ from those linking physical activity and health are highlighted. Evidence relating to associations of sedentary behaviours with major health outcomes and the population prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviours are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are proposed.

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    • "Increased effort is therefore being expended on research, clinical, and policy interventions aimed at reductions in sedentary time, and/or the promotion of breaks in sedentary behaviour in children, adolescents, and adults. Sedentary behaviour is probably modifiable by environmental/policy changes (Neuhaus et al., 2014; Salmon et al., 2011; Tremblay et al., 2010), but this is a relatively new field with a dearth of interventions to date, and limited basic data upon which to design interventions, particularly in children and adolescents. There is therefore an urgent need for new observational research in order to provide a sound, evidence-informed, basis for future research and policy interventions directed at sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to identify the determinants of objectively measured changes in sedentary time and sedentary fragmentation from age 9- to age 12years. Data were collected as part of the Gateshead Millennium Birth Cohort study from September 2008 to August 2009 and from January 2012 to November 2012. Participants were 9.3 (±0.4) years at baseline (n=508) and 12.5 (±0.3) years at follow-up (n=427). Sedentary behaviour was measured using an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Twenty potential determinants were measured, within a socio-ecological model, and tested for their association with changes in sedentary time and the extent to which sedentary behaviour is prolonged or interrupted (fragmentation index). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Measurements taken during winter and a greater decrease in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) over time were associated with larger increases in sedentary time (seasonality β: −3.03; 95% CI: −4.52, −1.54; and change in MVPA β: −1.68; 95% CI: −1.94, −1.41). Attendance at sport clubs was associated with smaller increases in sedentary time (−1.99; −3.44, −0.54). Girls showed larger decreases in fragmentation index (−0.52; −1.01, −0.02). Interventions aimed at decreasing the decline in MVPA and increasing/maintaining sport club attendance may prevent the rise in sedentary time as children grow older. In addition, winter could be targeted to prevent an increase in sedentary time and reduction in sedentary fragmentation during this season.
    11/2015; 2:880–885. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.10.007
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    • "e l s e v i e r . c o m / p m e d r cardiometabolic profiles compared to those who did not (Tremblay et al., 2010; Healy et al., 2015). Many chronic metabolic diseases linked to excessive sedentariness (e.g., diabetes) disproportionately affect Hispanic/Latinos compared to non-Hispanic Whites (Cowie et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive sedentary behavior is associated with negative health outcomes independent of physical activity. Objective estimates of time spent in sedentary behaviors are lacking among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometer-assessed sedentary time in a large, representative sample of Hispanic/Latino adults living in the United States, and compare sedentary estimates by Hispanic/Latino background, sociodemographic characteristics and weight categories. This study utilized baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) that included adults aged 18-74. years from four metropolitan areas (N. =. 16,415). Measured with the Actical accelerometer over 6. days, 76.9% (n. =. 12,631) of participants had >10. h/day and >3. days of data. Participants spent 11.9. h/day (SD 3.0), or 74% of their monitored time in sedentary behaviors. Adjusting for differences in wear time, adults of Mexican background were the least (11.6. h/day), whereas adults of Dominican background were the most (12.3. h/day), sedentary. Women were more sedentary than men, and older adults were more sedentary than younger adults. Household income was positively associated, whereas employment was negatively associated, with sedentary time. There were no differences in sedentary time by weight categories, marital status, or proxies of acculturation. To reduce sedentariness among these populations, future research should examine how the accumulation of various sedentary behaviors differs by background and region, and which sedentary behaviors are amenable to intervention.
    10/2015; 2:845-853. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.09.019
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    • "Notably, much health-related research will combine the investigation of sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors. The conceptual representation of sedentary behaviors as part of a spectrum of physical behaviors including sleep, sedentary behavior, and physical activity, as previously described by Tremblay et al. (2010) will probably become standard within future public health research. This theoretical perspective is taking hold via organizations such as the International Society for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour (see "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown the negative impact of sedentary behavior on health, including cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease-related morbidity, and mortality. Accurate measurement of sedentary behavior is thus important to plan effective interventions and to inform public health messages. This article (a) provides an overview of the nature and importance of sedentary behavior, (b) describes measurement methods, including subjective and objective measurement tools, (c) reviews the most important measurement and data processing issues and challenges facing sedentary behavior researchers, and (d) presents key findings from the most recent sedentary behavior measurement-related research. Both subjective and objective measures of sedentary behavior have limitations for obtaining accurate sedentary behavior measurements compliant with the current definitions of sedentary behavior, especially when investigating sedentary behavior as part of the full spectrum of physical behaviors. Regardless of the sedentary behavior measure chosen, researchers must be aware of all possible sources of error inherent to each technique and minimize those errors, thereby increasing validity of the outcome data.
    Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 08/2015; 19(3):105-115. DOI:10.1080/1091367X.2015.1055566
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