Proteomic Temporal Profile of Human Brain Endothelium After Oxidative Stress
ABSTRACT because brain endothelial cells exist at the neurovascular interface, they may serve as cellular reporters of brain dysfunction by releasing biomarkers into the circulation.
we used proteomic techniques to screen conditioned media from human brain endothelial cultures subjected to oxidative stress induced by nitric oxide over 24 hours. Plasma samples from human stroke patients were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
in healthy endothelial cells, interaction mapping demonstrated cross-talk involving secreted factors, membrane receptors, and matrix components. In oxidatively challenged endothelial cells, networks of interacting proteins failed to emerge. Instead, inflammatory markers increased, secreted factors oscillated over time, and endothelial injury repair was manifested as changes in factors related to matrix integrity. Elevated inflammatory markers included heat shock protein, chemokine ligand-1, serum amyloid-A1, annexin-A5, and thrombospondin-1. Neurotrophic factors (prosaposin, nucleobindin-1, and tachykinin precursors) peaked at 12 hours, then rapidly decreased by 24 hours. Basement membrane components (fibronectin, desomoglein, profiling-1) were decreased. Cytoskeletal markers (actin, vimentin, nidogen, and filamin B) increased over time. From this initial analysis, the high-ranking candidate thrombospondin-1 was further explored in human plasma. Acute ischemic stroke patients had significantly higher thrombospondin-1 levels within 8 hours of symptom onset compared to controls with similar clinical risk factors (659 ± 81 vs 1132 ± 98 ng/mL; P<0.05; n=20).
screening of simplified cell culture systems may aid the discovery of novel biomarkers in clinical neurovascular injury. Further collaborative efforts are warranted to discover and validate more candidates of interest.
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ABSTRACT: Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(9):1110-1123. Published online May 9, 2011. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.99Archives of neurology 05/2011; 68(9):1110-23. DOI:10.1001/archneurol.2011.99 · 7.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is one of the most robust experimental neuroprotective interventions against cerebral ischemia. Identification of molecular pathways and gene networks together with single genes or gene families that are significantly associated with neuroprotection might help unravel the mechanisms of therapeutic hypothermia. We performed a microarray analysis of ischemic rat brains that underwent 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 48 h of reperfusion. Hypothermia was induced for 4 h, starting 1 h after MCAO in male Wistar rats. At 48 h, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for infarct volumetry, and functional outcome was determined by a neuroscore. The brain gene expression profile of sham (S), ischemia (I), and ischemia plus hypothermia (HI) treatment were compared by analyzing changes of individual genes, pathways, and networks. Real-time reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on selected genes to validate the data. Rats treated with HI had significantly reduced infarct volumes and improved neuroscores at 48 h compared with I. Of 4067 genes present on the array chip, HI compared with I upregulated 50 (1.23%) genes and downregulated 103 (3.20%) genes equal or greater than twofold. New genes potentially mediating neuroprotection by hypothermia were HNRNPAB, HIG-1, and JAK3. On the pathway level, HI globally suppressed the ischemia-driven gene response. Twelve gene networks were identified to be significantly altered by HI compared with I. The most significantly altered network contained genes participating in apoptosis suppression. Our data suggest that although hypothermia at the pathway level restored gene expression to sham levels, it selectively regulated the expression of several genes implicated in protein synthesis and folding, calcium homeostasis, cellular and synaptic integrity, inflammation, cell death, and apoptosis.Neuroscience 02/2012; 208:109-22. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.01.048 · 3.33 Impact Factor