Prior studies have shown the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist bexarotene has preventive efficacy in rodent models of mammary and lung tumorigenesis albeit causing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. We reasoned that bexarotene delivered by inhalation may provide sufficient dose directly to the respiratory tract to achieve efficacy while avoiding these side effects. In this study, the chemopreventive activity of aerosolized bexarotene was investigated in the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced mouse lung tumor model as assessed by tumor multiplicity and tumor load. Aerosolized bexarotene significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and tumor load by 43% and 74%, respectively. Our data showed that bexarotene can both inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in vivo. Our data also show that aerosolized bexarotene did not increase plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level compared with diet group. These results indicate that aerosolization may be a safe and effective route of administering bexarotene for chemoprevention of lung cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the potential sites of cancer development, cancer of the lung accounts for the highest number of cancer deaths each year in the United States (Jemal et al., 2010(1)). Based on its histopathological features, lung cancer is grouped into small cell lung cancer (SCLC; ∼20%) and non-SCLC (NSCLC; ∼80%), which is further divided into three subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma (∼30%), adenocarcinoma (∼50%), and large cell lung carcinoma. Every subtype of lung cancer has a relatively low 5-year survival rate that is attributed, in part, to the fact that they are routinely diagnosed at later histologic stages. Due to this alarming statistic, it is necessary to develop not only new and effective means of treatment but also of prevention. One of the promising approaches is chemoprevention which is the use of synthetic or natural agents to inhibit the initial development of or further progression of early lung lesions (Hong and Sporn, 1997). Many compounds have been identified as potentially effective chemopreventive agents using animal models. Most chemopreventive studies have been performed using mouse models which were developed to study lung adenomas or adenocarcinomas. More recently, models of squamous cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer have also been developed. This review seeks to highlight mouse models which we helped to develop and presents the results of recent chemopreventive studies that we have performed in models of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell lung cancer.
Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2012; 105:211-26. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-394596-9.00007-X · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, one of the biggest challenges for pharmaceutical industry is to increase the speed of finding new medicines while at the same time controlling the ever rising cost of drug discovery and development. In order to increase the speed at which drug candidates are identified, high throughput assays (HTS) have been developed and have been widely implemented in the pharmaceutical industry. Cassette (or N-in-1) dosing for pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation is the process of generating in vivo PK data in a higher throughput manner by dosing multiple compounds to individual animals. However, due to generally poor solubility of compounds being tested, high percentages of organic solvents are often used in the formulation vehicle in order to solubilize compounds for cassette studies. Utilization of high organic content in formulation vehicles can result in unwanted side effects and animal tolerability issues. The current study evaluates the suitability of using nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension for cassette IV dosing. Nanoparticles of 10 poorly soluble marketed drugs covering a wide range of clearances were prepared using an electrospray device and evaluated. PXRD, TGA and particle size data were obtained in order to ensure the quality for in vivo evaluation. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was used as the vehicle in IV cassette study using nanoparticles and pharmacokinetic estimates from this study were comparable to those from a traditional high organic formulation approach. The use of nanoparticles in an aqueous suspension formulation was demonstrated to be appropriate for cassette dosing.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 10/2012; 12(10):7993-8000. DOI:10.1166/jnn.2012.6653 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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