DNA Methylation, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutation, and Survival in Glioma

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Impact Factor: 12.58). 07/2011; 103(2):143-53. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djq497
Source: PubMed


Although much is known about molecular and chromosomal characteristics that distinguish glioma histological subtypes, DNA methylation patterns of gliomas and their association with other tumor features such as mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes have only recently begun to be investigated.
DNA methylation of glioblastomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas, ependymomas, and pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 131) from the Brain Tumor Research Center at the University of California San Francisco, as well as nontumor brain tissues (n = 7), was assessed with the Illumina GoldenGate methylation array. Methylation data were subjected to recursively partitioned mixture modeling (RPMM) to derive methylation classes. Differential DNA methylation between tumor and nontumor was also assessed. The association between methylation class and IDH mutation (IDH1 and IDH2) was tested using univariate and multivariable analysis for tumors (n = 95) with available substrate for sequencing. Survival of glioma patients carrying mutant IDH (n = 57) was compared with patients carrying wild-type IDH (n = 38) using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.
We observed a statistically significant association between RPMM methylation class and glioma histological subtype (P < 2.2 × 10(-16)). Compared with nontumor brain tissues, across glioma tumor histological subtypes, the differential methylation ratios of CpG loci were statistically significantly different (permutation P < .0001). Methylation class was strongly associated with IDH mutation in gliomas (P = 3.0 × 10(-16)). Compared with glioma patients whose tumors harbored wild-type IDH, patients whose tumors harbored mutant IDH showed statistically significantly improved survival (hazard ratio of death = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.72).
The homogeneity of methylation classes for gliomas with IDH mutation, despite their histological diversity, suggests that IDH mutation is associated with a distinct DNA methylation phenotype and an altered metabolic profile in glioma.

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    • "It would prevail among low-grade tumors and it would be strongly associated with IDH1/IDH2 somatic mutations. Furthermore, it correlates with both improved patient survival and younger age, and it is associated with the GBM Proneuronal subtype [25, 27, 28]. As a matter of fact, the G-CIMP is triggered by IDH1/IDH2 mutations alone by remodelling both the methylome and the transcriptome [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in the critical region 19q13.3 for several solid tumors, including tumors of the nervous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the EMP3 promoter hypermethylation status in a series of 229 astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors and in 16 GBM cell lines. The analysis was performed by methylation-specific PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore, the EMP3 expression at protein level was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis. Associations of EMP3 hypermethylation with total 1p/19q codeletion, MGMT promoter hypermethylation, IDH1/IDH2 and TP53 mutations, and EGFR amplification were studied, as well as its prognostic significance. The EMP3 promoter hypermethylation has been found in 39.5% of gliomas. It prevailed in low-grade tumors, especially in gliomas with an oligodendroglial component, and in sGBMs upon pGBMs. In oligodendroglial tumors, it was strongly associated with both IDH1/IDH2 mutations and total 1p/19q codeletion and inversely with EGFR gene amplification. No association was found with MGMT hypermethylation and TP53 mutations. In the whole series, the EMP3 hypermethylation status correlated with 19q13.3 loss and lack of EMP3 expression at protein level. A favorable prognostic significance on overall survival of the EMP3 promoter hypermethylation was found in patients with oligodendroglial tumors.
    09/2013; 2013:756302. DOI:10.1155/2013/756302
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    • "TES is expressed in a wide range of adult human tissues, including brain (Tatarelli et al. 2000), and has been previously shown to inhibit tumorigenicity of human cancer cell lines (Tobias et al. 2001). DNA hypermethylation of the TES promoter is one of the most frequent epigenetic disruptions in primary GBM (;60% of cases) (Mueller et al. 2007; Martinez et al. 2009; Christensen et al. 2011) and is also observed in other human cancers (Qiu et al. 2010; Weeks et al. 2010). We analyzed methylation profiles generated for 67 GBM samples by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic changes are frequently observed in cancer. However, their role in establishing or sustaining the malignant state has been difficult to determine due to the lack of experimental tools that enable resetting of epigenetic abnormalities. To address this, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming techniques to invoke widespread epigenetic resetting of glioblastoma (GBM)-derived neural stem (GNS) cells. GBM iPSCs (GiPSCs) were subsequently redifferentiated to the neural lineage to assess the impact of cancer-specific epigenetic abnormalities on tumorigenicity. GiPSCs and their differentiating derivatives display widespread resetting of common GBM-associated changes, such as DNA hypermethylation of promoter regions of the cell motility regulator TES (testis-derived transcript), the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C; p57KIP2), and many polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) target genes (e.g., SFRP2). Surprisingly, despite such global epigenetic reconfiguration, GiPSC-derived neural progenitors remained highly malignant upon xenotransplantation. Only when GiPSCs were directed to nonneural cell types did we observe sustained expression of reactivated tumor suppressors and reduced infiltrative behavior. These data suggest that imposing an epigenome associated with an alternative developmental lineage can suppress malignant behavior. However, in the context of the neural lineage, widespread resetting of GBM-associated epigenetic abnormalities is not sufficient to override the cancer genome.
    Genes & development 03/2013; 27(6):654-69. DOI:10.1101/gad.212662.112 · 10.80 Impact Factor
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    • "DNA, mRNA and protein were isolated from corresponding frozen and fixed sections that contained greater than 75% non-necrotic tumor tissue. All WHO grade IV specimens were analyzed for IDH1/2 mutations as previously described [20] and those with a previous histological diagnosis of a lower-grade glioma in combination with IDH mutation were defined as secondary GBM (N = 17). "
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    ABSTRACT: Normal tissues express the M1 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PK) that helps generate and funnel pyruvate into the mitochondria for ATP production. Tumors, in contrast, express the less active PKM2 isoform, which limits pyruvate production and spares glycolytic intermediates for the generation of macromolecules needed for proliferation. Although high PKM2 expression and low PK activity are considered defining features of tumors, very little is known about how PKM expression and PK activity change along the continuum from low grade to high grade tumors, and how these changes relate to tumor growth. To address this issue, we measured PKM isoform expression and PK activity in normal brain, neural progenitor cells, and in a series of over 100 astrocytomas ranging from benign grade I pilocytic astrocytomas to highly aggressive grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). All glioma exhibited comparably reduced levels of PKM1 expression and PK activity relative to normal brain. In contrast, while grade I-III gliomas all had modestly increased levels of PKM2 RNA and protein expression relative to normal brain, GBM, regardless of whether they arose or progressed from lower grade tumors, showed a 3-5 fold further increase in PKM2 RNA and protein expression. Low levels of PKM1 expression and PK activity were important for cell growth as PKM1 over-expression and the accompanying increases in PK activity slowed the growth of GBM cells. The increased expression of PKM2, however, was also important, because shRNA-mediated PKM2 knockdown decreased total PKM2 and the already low levels of PK activity, but paradoxically also limited cell growth and . These results show that pyruvate kinase M expression, but not pyruvate kinase activity, is regulated in a grade-specific manner in glioma, but that changes in both PK activity and PKM2 expression contribute to growth of GBM.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57610. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057610 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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