Many are called, yet few are chosen. Are neuropsychiatric clinical trials letting us down?

McArthur and Associates, GmbH Ramsteinerstrasse 28, CH-4052 Basel, Switzerland.
Drug discovery today (Impact Factor: 6.69). 12/2010; 16(5-6):173-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2010.12.005
Source: PubMed
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    • "In all mammals, there exists an area that controls motor activity, an area responsible for sensation, balance, hearing and so forth. But the response of the brain to drugs and disease differs significantly (Barnes and Hayes 2002; O’Collins et al. 2006; Schnabel 2008; Enna and Williams 2009; Geerts 2009; Regenberg et al. 2009; Mogil 2009; Unknown 2010; McArthur 2011).2 "
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    ABSTRACT: We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine's 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the difference between the gross level of examination of species and examinations on finer levels can shed light on important methodological and ethical inconsistencies leading to ignorance of potentially unethical practices and policies regarding the use of animals in scientific research.
    Science and Engineering Ethics 04/2013; 20(2). DOI:10.1007/s11948-013-9442-7 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    01/2012; Academic Press.
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral neuroimaging is a rapidly evolving discipline that represents a marriage between the fields of behavioral neuroscience and preclinical molecular imaging. This union highlights the changing role of imaging in translational research. Techniques developed for humans are now widely applied in the study of animal models of brain disorders such as drug addiction. Small animal or preclinical imaging allows us to interrogate core features of addiction from both behavioral and biological endpoints. Snapshots of brain activity allow us to better understand changes in brain function and behavior associated with initial drug exposure, the emergence of drug escalation, and repeated bouts of drug withdrawal and relapse. Here we review the development and validation of new behavioral imaging paradigms and several clinically relevant radiotracers used to capture dynamic molecular events in behaving animals. We will discuss ways in which behavioral imaging protocols can be optimized to increase throughput and quantitative methods. Finally, we discuss our experience with the practical aspects of behavioral neuroimaging, so investigators can utilize effective animal models to better understand the addicted brain and behavior.
    Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 03/2012; 11:93-115. DOI:10.1007/7854_2012_206
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